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Chapter 12: Nutrition from
1 to 100

Cheryl Cavaliere MS, RD, LD/N, CLC
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

• Be able to describe the general nutritional needs for the

following age groups:
• 1-4 y/o
• School aged children and adolescents
• Aging population

© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Nutrient needs of children
• Calories and protein:
• 2 years old: 1000 Calories, 13 g of protein/day
• 6 years old: 1600 Calories, 19 g of protein/day
• Carbohydrates same as adults: 45–65% of total energy intake
• Fat percentage higher:

30–40% of total energy intake for 1–3-year-olds
25–35% for 4–18-year-olds
As children grow, recommended proportion of calories from fat decreases © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Nutrient needs of children
• Micronutrients: smaller amounts than adults

• Like adults, a varied, nutrient-dense diet can

meet all vitamin and mineral requirements

© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Micronutrients to Meet Bone Growth Demands in Children
• Calcium: RDA = 700 milligrams/day for ages 1–3; 1000

mg/day for ages 4–8
• Adequate calcium intake during childhood is essential for achieving

maximum peak bone mass to prevent osteoporosis later in life

• Vitamin D: RDA = 600 IU (15 µg)/day for children,

adolescents, and young adults

© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Iron in children
• Children are at high risk for developing Iron-deficiency

anemia in U.S. because diet is mostly poor
• Iron: RDA = 7 mg/day for ages 1–3; 10 mg/day for ages 4–6

(latter is higher than for adult men)
• Required for growth
• Iron-deficiency anemia can impair learning ability and intellectual

• Treated with iron supplements until iron stores are replenished
• Keep supplements out of the reach of children to prevent iron toxicity

© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

What to offer to children

What to Offer Children
• Plenty of Fruits and Vegetables Daily (per MyPlate)
• Parents need to eat fruits and vegetables if they expect children to eat them.
• The more a child sees a parent eat a particular food, the more likely they are to consume it.
• Plenty of Balance & Variety among other food groups

(based on MyPlate Recommendations)
• When new foods are offered often, children learn to have “new

food” food acceptance.
• Food preference is a learned behavior that occurs after a food is offered of minimum 8-10 times (or more if child has developmental problems). What to Offer Children to Drink
• Beverages should be limited to the following:
• Water
• Milk (should be limited)
• Juice (should be limited)
• Should not offer sugar sweetened beverages:
• Any “fruit drink” that is not 100% fruit juice. Example: Capri sun, Hawaiian

punch, Gatorade, etc.
• Any sodas or soft drinks
• Coffee or caffeinated tea

Electrolyte enhanced beverages, such as Gatorade or Pedialyte, should only be offered when advised by health professional. This would be offered to children who are playing sports for long periods of time or during times of electrolyte loss due to sweating, diarrhea, or vomiting.

Fluid Needs
• Water: can meet water needs by drinking enough to satisfy

thirst in most situations

• Milk: milk intake should be limited and included in child’s total

dairy consumption per MyPlate.

For example: The dairy recommendation per day for a child 3y/o is 2 cups (16oz) per day. So if a child consumes 1-8oz cup of yogurt during the day and 1(2 oz) piece of string cheese, then they will only need a 6 oz glass of milk to meet their dairy requirement. Milk is a source of calories and therefore should be limited to the recommended amounts. If overconsumption occurs it will likely result in unnecessary weight gain and a lack of variety from the other food