Science Toolkit Essay

Submitted By HannahB233
Words: 508
Pages: 3

Independent Variable: the variable that changes (I can control) Dependent Variable: the part of the experiment that changes that we do not have any control over
Hypothesis: written in “If the -Then” format, the prediction a scientist makes before an experiment
Constants: the parts of the experiment that stays the same (usually at least 3) Control: the part of the experiment used for comparison where the outcome is known
Trial: the rounds of the experiment Sample Size: the number of items observed in an experiment
Observation: scientific evidence Inference: Hunch
Scientific Method: 1. Observe, state the problem 2. Research 3. Hypothesize 4. Test 5. Record Data 6. Conclude 7. Replicate work or retest

Lamarck’s Theory (Acquired Characteristics): traits were acquired through will and determination; traits acquired within a lifetime are passed on to offspring; use and disuse; evolution takes a long time
Darwin’s Theory (Natural Selection): The process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring. The main process that brings about evolution. All species have variation; the survival of a variation within a population leads that DNA only to be passed on leading to adaptation; evolution takes a long time
Evolution: The change in genetic (allelic) frequencies in a population’s gene pool that takes place over time Evidence: Homologous Structures (structures that are the same), Vestigial Structures, Embryological Similarities, Molecular homologies, Fossil Record, Biogeography
Genetic Variation: The variety of alleles in a population (Beetles being sprayed with chemicals and the survivors reproducing)
Survival of the Fittest: populations of organisms that are better equipped to function in the environment survive •those with favorable variations (adaptations) reproduce to create new generations of better bred individuals •nature will drop out those variations that harm or do not benefit *evolution happens to a population
Species: created through natural selection, and sexual selection organisms of the same group that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
Speciation: Allopatric (two species separate then get back together but can’t reproduce because of