MOTTOS OF THE 19TH CENTURY
“Remember the Alamo!”
“Remember the Maine, and to Hell with Spain!”
“Sic Semper Tyrannis!”
“Propaganda of the Deed”
UNIT 2 TOPICS
The Scientific Revolution
The American Revolution
The French Revolution Begins
The Age of Napoleon
Latin American Independence Movements
Nationalism in Europe: Italy and Germany
UNIT 2: THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
• In the 1500s, Vesalius used observation and experimentation to understand the human body.
• The Polish astronomer Copernicus applied mathematics to the movements of the planets
• replacing old geocentric picture of the universe with a new heliocentric one.
• Francis Bacon took an empirical approach to knowledge • reaching conclusions with experimentation and observation.
• French philosopher René Descartes created a new field of mathematics called analytic geometry
• often called the father of modern mathematics.
• Galileo Galilei, an Italian mathematician, designed a telescope that helped confirm the ideas of Copernicus.
• Isaac Newton devised the theory of universal gravitation
• revolutionized astronomy and physics.
UNIT 2: THE ENLIGHTENMENT
• During the Enlightenment, people used the methods of the
Scientific Revolution to study society.
• John Locke argued for a "natural law" at work in the universe
• a moral order that people could find through reason.
• Montesquieu used reason to investigate different forms of government • believed in a separation of powers.
• Voltaire wrote many works including histories, pamphlets, poems, plays, and novels, which often got him in trouble.
• The deists believed in the existence of a God who made the universe and left it to run according to the laws of nature.
• Jean-Jacques Rousseau criticized society as corrupt and hypocritical and said that people were naturally good.
• Mary Wollstonecraft contended that women should have the same opportunities as men.
• Adam Smith laid the foundation for modern economics and favored a laissez-faire approach to government.
• Intellectual movement of the 1700’s
• Power of human reason to discover natural laws that govern human nature
• Goal: to improve people, governments, & society through reason • Philosophes – activist writers looking to spread ideas through society
• Key thinkers: Hobbes, Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu,
Smith, Jefferson, Wollstonecraft
Deism – belief in a god, but not one that can be known through organized religion
Major political & social changes coming!
UNIT 2: THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
• In 1763, Britain issued a proclamation that ordered colonists to stay east of the Appalachian Mountains.
• order angered many colonists who wanted to go west.
• Parliament passed laws requiring American colonists to pay new taxes.
• Many colonists declared, "No taxation without representation," and refused to buy British goods.
• In April 1775, the American Revolution began when British soldiers and colonial militiamen skirmished outside Boston.
• On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress adopted the
Declaration of Independence.
• expanded Enlightenment ideas and stated, "All men are created equal." • The leadership of George Washington and the assistance of the French helped the colonists defeat Great Britain.
• The U.S. Constitution was inspired by Enlightenment ideas
• longest-lived written plan for government.
REVIEW AMERICANS WIN INDEPENDENCE
• French and Indian War in 1763
• Britain taxes colonists to pay war debts
• Colonists argue that British cannot tax w/o consent
Growing Hostility Leads to War
• Colonists protest tea tax in 1773
• meet in Philadelphia to address British policies (1774)
• British and Americans exchange fire at Lexington and Concord in 1775
AMERICANS CREATE A REPUBLIC
Weak National Gov.
• Articles of Confederation set