Second Language Acquisition Case Study

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Pages: 24

General Introduction
1. Statement of the Problem Affective factors have been introduced in the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) since the 1970s. This concerned notion has been taken into consideration and it was one of the most interesting phenomena in linguistics. The “new” dimension of emotion injected some agitation to know more about their influence on learners’ achievement in L2 learning. Accordingly, the affective state of learners, which contributes to success or failure in Foreign Language Learning (FLL), was given much more importance. Henceforth, when attention is drawn to the affect domain, this leads to more effective FLL. Actually, affective factors are principally related to the learners’ psychological
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2.1. State anxiety. It is defined as feelings of apprehensiveness and tension that were usually paired with arousal of the autonomic nervous system (Spielberger et al.,1970). Further, they considered state anxiety as a hindrance and as an perturbation of individual’s sensational equilibrium. (Spielberger et al. 2005). State anxiety is an unpleasant feeling which can influence the individual ability to react in a positive way in any situation.
2.2. Trait anxiety. It is related to someone’s personality. According to Spielberger et al. (2005), individuals who expertise an anxiety trait will have a behaviour and a response which reflect their ability to understand the nature of certain environmental stimuli and stressful situations as more or less difficult or threatening. People who develop more anxiety-trait are much more disposed to reacting to a large level of stimuli, and will be more able to worry in less dangerous and difficult situations. In some circumstances, these people are more likely to have state-anxiety, especially in normal day-to-day activities; as an example, individuals who are accustomed to facing tremendous amount of difficulties in their everyday
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As learners, we have all experienced this feeling of being confident of our capacities to do something, and this of course, has to do with the great desire, especially in academic setting. Thus, it can be said that SLA has a relation with psychology. Self-esteem is a psychological expression used to reflect someone’s overall evaluation of his/her own worth. It refers to the evaluative and affective aspects of the self, to how "good" or "bad" we feel toward ourselves. It is the outcome of the self’s capacity for reflexivity; that is, the capability to look at one’s self and to evaluate what one sees. Actually, self-esteem is a very important factor in SLL and academic achievements because when learners do not trust in their capacities, or have the so called “low self-esteem”, this will lead to “academic failure”. Thus, it can be said that, its absence produces the suspicion on learners’ own abilities which lead them to perform a low outcome due to lack of self- confidence. (James1890; White, 1959; Coopersmith, 1959, 1967; Rosenberg, 1965, 1979; Branden, 1969, 1994; and Mruk 1999, 2006). Over and above, students who have low self -esteem are more likely to experiment anxiety. Consequently, it can be said that anxiety is the motive of low self-