Second Semester: History Test Essay

Submitted By Shimmermetimmer
Words: 2157
Pages: 9

1.

Bossuet
(1627­1704)

Hobbes
(1588­1679)

Locke
(1632­1704)

Rousseau
(1712­1778)

Time and
Background
Effect on
Perspective

Burgundian Catholic bishop, leader of
French Academy, tutor of Dauphin, son of Louis XIV, wrote before Enlightenment and French
Revolution but in the midst of the English
Civil War and execution of King
Charles I of England when authority of the monarch needed to be reaffirmed in
France to avoid similar fate.

Educated
Englishman who is born during Spanish
Armada and lives through English Civil
War. Tutors for noble Cavendish
Family son and travels much of
Europe meeting scientists. Hides in
France during Civil
War and likes
French society and government. English classically liberal Puritan who lives during Glorious
Revolution, writes treatise before
Glorious Revolution, lives through English
Civil War,
Commonwealth
Period, and restoration of the monarchy. His second treatise outline of government generally matches the government under
William and Mary

Self­educated Swiss man who has to fend for self, exposed to wealth and the
Enlightenment
through widow who takes him in, writes during buildup of
Enlightenment, Age of Reason, and salons, though dies before French
Revolution. His theories inspired the government formed after the revolution and had socialist tendencies. Compact/
Social
Contract

Believes the contract is the covenant between God and
Abraham and therefore we are all bound to obey kings who succeed from that covenant and have a duty to follow them. The people are not really part of the contract. The people give up their rights to the sovereign when they enter society in order to ensure safety and security and suppress brutish tendencies. People enter contract when they enter society by giving up natural freedom for civil freedom under the government. They receive safety, property, impartial judges, and enforcement of decisions in exchange. People enter a contract when they enter society in which they do not lose any of the benefits of the state of nature, but gain intelligence and civil liberty, and are governed under the general will, which is the sum of the people’s interests that benefits everyone. People still rule themselves through the general will. Source of
Sovereignty

Absolute monarch, who receives source of authority from God.
His authority is SPAR
(sacred, paternal, absolute, reason)

Monarch’s source of sovereignty comes from submission of wills of men.

The source of the sovereignty comes from the consent of the men who enter the society and form the social contract.

Source comes from the people’s agreement to live under the general rule and comes from the interpretation of the general will by the small government. Purpose and Absolute monarchy,
Ideal Form of because the monarch
Government is godlike and acting on behalf of God, therefore his actions must be favored by
God and obeyed by the people.

Monarchy, because humans are brutish and will not form states naturally.
They must give up rights to sovereign in order to have safety and security.

A form of democracy in which middle class white men could vote for others to be part of legislature or the executive branch, where the legislature made laws and the

Small government which acts only to ensure laws under the general will. It concerns itself with only the very few issues that are good for everyone. Tends

Justification for Revolution

There should be no revolution and it is not justified because the monarch is acting on behalf of God, who is perfect. There is no right to rebel because the people have entered a contract by submitting to the sovereignty and entering society.

executive carried them out. These were separate in order to avoid tyranny.

towards a socialist nature. The people…