a. Describe the importance of the individual in Renaissance humanist thought.
Humanism, an educational and philosophical outlook that emphasizes the personal worth of the individual and the central importance of human values as opposed to religious belief, developed in Europe during the Renaissance, influenced by the study of ancient Greek and Latin literature and philosophy. Humanists believed that people should enjoy life on earth, and question the bible while interpreting how they wish. Humanism was more independent from the Roman Catholic Church, and allowed people to think about other things rather than just Religion. In art, music, philosophy, and political theory, the new emphasis was on what was human; hence the word humanism has come to describe much of the Italian Renaissance This effected the Renaissance Worldview because people of the time started to believe more in Humanist ideas and life on earth rather than just working to death, just to go to heaven.
Individualism. People thought it right to be themselves - the great man can shape his own destiny. Humans are the center of the universe and the "measure of all things." Humans could do well at many things: "The Renaissance Man." Humans began to have a questioning attitude and challenged tradition and authority. They believed life on earth was more important than the afterlife. There was greater emphasis on this life and less on the afterlife and on God - the world is to be enjoyed.
Humans are the center of the universe and the "measure of all things."
b. In what ways did the witchcraft hunts of the 16th and 17th centuries foster the expansion of state power?
Europeans’ fear was that witchcraft was a new and increasing threat to their world. Witch mania reflected the fears Europeans held about the devil , another consequence of religious dissent and uncertainty. It also reflects their growing conviction that only the state had the power to protect them. In both Catholic and Protestant countries, the result of these witchcraft trials thus a considerable increase in the scope of the state’s powers to regulate the lives of subjects.
c. In what ways was the Peace of Augsburg (1555) and the Edict of Nantes (1598) comparable documents, providing similar solutions for similar problems? Which of the two had a more lasting impact?
They are all compromising contract .They both granted a measure of freedom of worship to Protestants, which have in common, is that they granted some form of religious freedom. The purpose of these is that they try to quell Religious conflict, build stable domestic order. T It officially ended the religious struggle between these two groups and made the legal division of Western Christianity permanent within the Holy Roman Empire. Catholic princes rule Catholic territories, Protestant princes rule Protestant territories . The Edict of Nantes
Catholicism established as the official religion Huguenots allowed to worship, attend universities, and serve as public officials. the Peace of Augsburg had a more lasting impact. However the Edict was revoked in 1685 by Louis XIV and it did not guarantee absolute freedom of worship. the Peace of Augsburg was a historical milestone. Catholic rulers were forced to acknowledge the legality of Protestantism.
d. In what ways did the Index of Prohibited Books result from the improved printing press invented by Johannes Gutenburg in 1450?
The origin of the Index of Prohibited Books (Index librorum prohibitorum) dates to the 1520s, following Martin Luther's revolt in 1517, when the printing press became the principal means for the spread of the Protestant Reformation. it translated the bible and let news get around faster almost like first news paper. Therefore, when Martin Luther to pass his concept of religious reform, through the printing…