Referencing is a way of acknowledging that you have used ideas and written material belonging to another author. It applies to what you have read, watched, or listened to including electronic sources, like websites. There are several different ways of referencing. The School uses the “Harvard‟ referencing system, described below.
Why do it?
Accurate referencing demonstrates you have undertaken appropriate reading and have an appreciation of the links between theory and practice.
Proper and consistent referencing is an important aspect of achieving academic standards in your work and you will lose marks for lack of (or poor) referencing. So it is important to note all the sources you use when researching your assignment
To quote or paraphrase without referencing the original source is an academic offence and you may be penalised for it. Failure to acknowledge another writer’s work or ideas will be considered plagiarism (academic theft). You must submit an electronic copy of your assignment through the plagiarism detection software called “Turnitin‟. You can read the University’s academic offences regulations here: http://www.aber.ac.uk/en/smb/current-students/
Where do you put this information?
References should be included in all kinds of assignments – essays, portfolios, posters, presentations and dissertations. Each reference has two parts:
In the body of the text
Whenever you refer to someone else’s work, either directly or indirectly, indicate whose work it is. This applies equally to quotations or paraphrases in your own words. If you are paraphrasing the author’s actual words, acknowledge the source in brackets at the end of the section or sentence (and do not twist their original meaning).
For direct quotations (“their words”), the relevant page number is also needed. Examples are given overleaf.
It is not enough to just put a reference at the end of the paragraph; you need to let the reader know where your use of a source begins and ends. Long quotations (more than three lines) should be indented (from the left margin).
At the end of the assignment
A Reference List including the full details for all the references (discussed, quoted or paraphrased) should be provided. The list should be left-aligned and in alphabetical order (according to author). Do not create separate lists according to source type. However, each type of resource has its own specific layout that must be followed scrupulously (as illustrated in the following pages).
What should you include?
Basically, you should cite enough information for the reader to locate the source themselves. The other golden rule is that you should style your references consistently.
In the text of your essay, if there are more than three authors, you do not need to list them all. You can use “et al” (meaning “and others‟) after the first author’s surname. However, in the Reference List at the end of the essay, all the authors should be listed. See the “Wearmouth” example in section 1 below.
Books in general
Always use the title page and the copyright page information, rather than the book’s cover, to find these details.
(i) Author(s) (surname followed by initial(s))
(ii) (Year of publication) (in round brackets)
(iii) Book title (in italics, in sentence case) : Subtitle (separated by colon)
(iv) Edition of book (only if not the first edition; abbreviate to „edn.‟)
(v) Place of publication: (the first named if there is more than one place)
Cottrell (2008, p.133) recommends to “use your own words, even if you don’t think you write well – they count for more than copied text.”
Internationally, there is a drive towards inclusion of all students in mainstream education (Wearmouth et al, 2004).
In reference list:
Cottrell, S. (2008) The study skills handbook. 3rd edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Wearmouth, J., Richmond, R.C., Glynn, T. and Berryman, M. (2004)