Concept is an idea and how its related or connected to other ideas.
Think of the word family, the concept of family is related to a lot of different things.
Basic unit of all analysis.
Classify, categorize ideas, events, people sorts, summarizes parts; makes life workable.
Types of Concepts
Observable-concrete,explicit,direct family, friends, group, grades; pocket money.
Inferable- abstract, suggested by a result. Beliefs, ideas, opinions;good, bad; group; love
Example of summarizing dimension
What do you think of when you hear a word mother father brother sister. “lady gaga”, weird.
Concepts refer to categories not action
All “mothers”---- descriptive or evaluative concepts usually carry a lot of baggage.
Primary, conceptual focus, not individuals.(society, family, co-workers,co-habitue,friends)how, why, effects of acts of people in groups.
Individual of interest only so far as s/he is part of groups
Other forms of social combinations
Categories(gender, age), tyoes(sub-cultures)
So whats a group?
Can be two people of billions of people.
(a couple of people talking or all humans) usually an identifiable unit.
Unit suggests a structure(course focus)
(structure infers connected parts)
Structure can be informal or formal
Restrictive definition of a group
Clearly distinguishes members from non-members.
Distinct ideas of whats important, how and why.(“Social construction of reality”)
Particular sanctions promote conformity(controls,customs,rules,laws)
Cohesiveness, bonding, solidarity. (hang together, different from others.)
Members know eachother --- shared outlook (at least know-of other group members.)
Meet occasionally or atleast, “meet-able”
Strong sense of membership or belonging (support; creates self-esteem, self-confidence)
Group important to members. (If unimportant, don’t stay, leave group)
Family, profession; culture, society, community limitations of restrictive definition.
Most common types of groups
Primary group-foundational intimate, face-to-face contact, cooperation responsible for basic socialization of kids. Most basic idea of “we” or “us” general involves “first place” situations balance, harmony is ideal, but not necessary.
Intimate- intimacy=voluntary revelation.
Max @ +15 to 20; varies with circumstances most severe consequences, if doesn’t flourish.
Family- nuclear, extended, closest friends.
Secondary Group- reinforcing not an intimate or cooperative as primary.
Often mediated, indirect contact, exchange(memos,emails; chain of command)
Co-workers, people you know or know-of. Limited routine contact common. Max@ +161
Reference Group- Group used to asses your own group, actions basis of comparison, source of information.
Observable- this class; fashion, fads. inferable- small-“1” liberals.
Most social action occurs in groups of 2 or 3.
Larger groupings- crowds, audiences.
Social investment for group life is expensive so limits set to manage social resources; +161
Groups in places(arenas for action)
First places- home, family
Second places- work, school
Third places- recreational, leisure.
Value emphasis (Thought- ideas, beliefs, attitudes, opinions)
(action- what we do, when, where, why)
(conform= rewards; don’t conform=losses)
Values abstract(ideational),generalized(some, not all) shared(common), standards(basis of decisions) emotive(evokes strong sense of right; patriotism) commitment(duty), socialization(acquired)
Honest,hard work, marriage, success, education.
Same values in all cultures, societies.
Emphasis critical; normative expression varies.
Value emphasis reveals differences. education, respect for elders in japan, Canada success most in usa; everywhere else varies science, technology in developed societies. Age, life experience more important elsewhere.
Rules re: how to act in