Functionalism: to understand a society, we must examine the social functions of its institutions. For instance, politics regulars the norms in our society to condition us to act in a certain way. Whereas schools and the education is meant to integrate us into society and increase educated people.
Cultural Materialism: Societies do not change because of their ideologies do. Instead, societies change due to materialistic circumstances, such as economics and technology. An example of this is how societies went from farm work to factory work.
Structuralism: Structuralism attempts to analyze a specific field (for instance, mythology) as a complex system of interrelated parts. More simply, it consists of basic building blocks that focuses mostly on the interaction of those building blocks.
Structuralism is a concept in psychology that takes an item, or an idea, and breaks it down to its basic qualities. Structuralism was first defined in 1879 by the German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt. An example of structuralism is describing an apple. An apple is crisp, sweet, juicy, round, and hard. Another example of structuralism is describing your experience at the ocean by saying it is windy, salty, and cold, but rejuvenating. Pysch
Experimental Pysch: sets up experiments to see how people react to identify normal range of reactions.
Clinical pysch: develops programs for treating mentally ill people.
Psychoanalytic theory: looking at the mind and how it works. The mind is divided by the subconscious and conscious. The unconscious has more influence than the conscious has on our personality and behavior: Unconscious is divided into three parts – ID, EGO, SUPEREGO.
ID (instinctual drives MEETING BASIC NEEDS)
-responsible for instinctual, basic desires and needs.
-impulsive, obnoxious, can’t control themselves.
-Example: see someone that you are sexually attracted to. Although you would like to have an intimate interaction with said person, you would not pounce upon them, despite the fact you wanted to.
EGO – DEALING WITH REALITY
- “referee” weighs both side.
- looks at both demands of the ID and Superego and compromises “negotiates”\
-Example: Individual A made individual B angry. As much as B wants to hit A and feel satisfaction, he knows he’ll be kicked of the team. Decides it’s to walk away.
- rules based, very rigid, anal, strict
- doesn’t act up upon if it is deemed “inappropriate”
- follows the common convention.
-Example: Sarah knew that she could steal the supplies from work and no one would know about it. However, she knew that stealing was wrong, so she decided not to take anything even though she would probably never get caught.
Personality developed depending on how these 3 parts interacted. If we became too frustrated, then our behavior would reflect our anger. Alternatively, too much freedom could also be bad.
Behaviorism: we can predict and control behavior by identifying factors that motivate it.
Learning theory: people are born with little instinct, but a lot o learning potential. IE. Children brought up in warm loving environments grow up well and fulfill potential due to the rewards. Pavlov demonstrated this was a dog. n the case of the salivating dogs in Pavlov's experiment, the bell tone signaled and predicted the arrival of the dog food, thus resulting in the dog salivating Sociology:
Structural fuctionalism: the human body has basic needs, therefore each society must provide its members with the requirements for functioning. The basis of struc funct, is that society works in such a fashion that everything will work despite conflict --- for example, crime is normal and Laws are in place to deter people from committing crimes, so living in society becomes FUNCTIONAL for human beings. This is the simplest way to explain it.
Neomarxism: proposed that economic power, which leads to