Submitted By Memo-Ali
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Learning languages that are foreign is old. oThe importance of learning languages that are foreign is as old as human history. oThe foundations of the modern learning in languages is Latin study and teaching. oThe dominant language in religion, education, governance and commerce in 500 years back was Latin (Brumfit, Lunt & Trim, 1985). oLatin was however replaced by English, Italian, and French. oThe above three languages became the main language for writing and speaking. oLatin study started diminishing and declining from living language studies that had their use in the world.

Curriculum subjects oThe decline is the main reason justifying the study of the Latin language. oInnovation in the learning of second language began in the 19th century. oThe momentum of this innovation occurred in 20th century (Alcón, & Codina, 1998). oThe language also diminished from being offered as a subject offered in the curriculum of the school.

Emergence of Modern day Languages: o Until the onset of 18th century, modern languages study did not form part of European Schools’ curriculum. o Students of modern language studied rules of grammar, did exercises that were similar, and translated abstract sentences (Block, 2003). Very little focus was put on oral work.

Presented social issues: o Presently, there are a number of social challenges that learning a second language faces.

o The recipients of these challenges are the teachers, learners, and family members of the learner. o These issues relies on several factors that include the age of the learner at the time he or she begin learning a second language among others. o There is recognition of English as global language. o Participation in the social aspects of the new life, including school, can be difficult (Genesee, 2004).

Second language learning Chief issues include:

Bilingualism is among the major issues in learning of the second

_ Subtractive

bilingualism is the problem faced by second language


Language anxiety and poor education systems:

When young children move to a new school where they are

required to learn a new language to communicate.

Children discover that their native language has no value or

function in the new world they find themselves.

Language anxiety and poor education systems


Students face anxiety while learning a second language. Subtractive bilingualism


loss or erosion of their native language e.g. Xhosa speaking leaner illustrated

Discussion (continuation) o When I new school, discover that their native language has no value or function in the new world they find themselves. o They (children) see their native language as a hindrance to their participation in the social life while at school
(Brumfit, Lunt & Trim, 1985). o This is the scenario leading to children abandoning their native language and at the same time learning a language that is new.

Changes by new language
Affected groups: oYoung learners are more severely affected by these changes than the older learners (Alcón, & Codina, 1998).
Negative and positive transition: oSecond language displaces the native language. oAccording to the University of California, many students end up dropping the native language at the course of studying English language. oIn some cases, learning a second language does not lead to drop of the native language. oEthnic diversity is not highly valued both in the US and Canada. oThe primary reason for the adverse outcome is dependent on the societal context in which the second language is taught (Genesee, 2004).

Impact on children o Minority language students faces strong assimilation forces on enroll in new language speaking schools. o The forces are not only external but also internal. o This effect is due to the differences perceived in native language and a new language (Kao &
O'Neill, 1998). o Majority of children see the native