Social Science Essay

Submitted By coleAlonza
Words: 1712
Pages: 7

Chapter 10

I. Education-refers especially to efforts, usually by the more mature members of a society, to teach each new generation the beliefs, the way of life, the values, knowledge and skills of the group

A. In modern society there is so much to learn, therefore, individuals must specialize in particular fields
B. Credentializing-using school diplomas as a way to limit entry into jobs

II. Schools as Agencies of Social Control

A. Education civilizes us and it is through education that society transmits to individuals the knowledge dealing with the ways of life of the groups. It is a prime agency of social control
B. Academic freedom-the freedom of students and teachers to purse, discuss, and teach knowledge without hindrance or censorship
C. Dual thrust of U.S. education-both the development of individuality and the socialization of students-leads to a tension in our attitude toward education
D. Education and U.S. Democracy-education prepares people to fit into society and serves as a fundamental building block of U.S. democracy in the following ways:
1. By teaching the masses of our citizens to be literate, public education makes it possible for them to communicate with one another more effectively
2. The public schools teach children to get along with different kinds of people
3. Our system of public support for education reduces inequalities of opportunity at all educational levels
4. Finally, our public school system has enabled us as a nation to make much more effective use of our human resources

III. The Development of U.S. Education

A. In 1620, all the New England colonies except Rhode Island has passed legislation making it mandatory for parents and the masters of apprentices to ensure that their charges learned both a trade and the elements of reading, writing, and religion
B. Most of our early leaders had limited faith in the ability of the common citizen either to vote wisely or to profit from education. Therefore, the right to vote was restricted to the few by property and other qualifications
C. Public elementary education became firmly established when Andrew Jackson became president in 1828
D. By 1860 tax-supported elementary schools had been opened in many states, but not until some time after the Civil War did the idea of publicly supported high schools begin to gain wide acceptance
E. Since 1865 there has been a phenomenal expansion of education
F. In the early 2000s, almost 100 percent of children from the ages of 5 to 17 are in school at least some days every school year and attend school for about 165 days a year compared to fifty days in 1870
G. The most striking expansion of education in the twentieth century was in the colleges and universities. In 2000 the number of students in colleges and universities had increased more than twenty times
H. Dual school system-separates, at an early age, the children who expect to go on to a college or a university from those who do not
I. Unitary school system-most children attend the same type of school and follow a course of study that eventually leads to graduation from high school after twelve years

J. Formalization of the School System
1. By 1880 the structure of schools in the United States had evolved into the familiar 8-4-4 system-a graded eight-year elementary school, a four-year high school, a four-year college
2. In most U.S. communities a year of kindergarten was added at the bottom of the scale
3. Head Start-is a federal program that seeks to enhance the social and intellectual development of students as young as three years old
4. Evolution has also occurred at the college level but the community college movement. They were primarily concerned with preparing their students to enter university in their junior year
5. By the end of the 1930s, the number of community colleges had substantially increased
6. Community colleges-are designed to meet the diverse needs of students who could