Explain The Key Sociological Perspectives

Submitted By beckyrich
Words: 1748
Pages: 7


In this area I will be looking at 1 key sociological approaches which are:
New right
Karl Marx developed the approach of Marxism; as well as being a conflict model, it can be considered a structuralist model. Marx thought that society shaped individuals behaviour. He also believed that society and the people in it are defined by their economic system. Marx though that in the industrial society of his time there were two social classes, the bourgeoisie or capitalists and the proletariat.
The capitals, or bourgeoisie are the small but powerful group who own all the factories and other places of employment.
The proletariat are a much bigger group but are poorer and consists of all the workers. They are the people that the bourgeoisie would employ.
Marx’s view was that these two social class groups were always in conflict. The owners of the land, offices and factories would want very large profit which would then mean the employees would expect higher wages, which then would eat into the profits. This is how Marxism is known as the conflict model. Marx thought that all this conflict would lead to revolution. Conflict was inherited in the economical system because of the unequal relationship between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.
The values and attitudes of the ruling class (bourgeoisie) are passed on, rather than the common value system of the functionalists. The proletariat are being exploited majorly and they don’t even know they are, this is called false consciousness.
Marxists believe that someone’s behaviour is the result of their surroundings and socialisation, with very little choice. It’s the socialisation that provides the values and interests for the ruling class. Marxists make too big of deal of different class interest and focus a lot on potential conflicts. There are clear inequalities that remain, although the standard of living has improved.
To summarise Marxism: they believe there are two kinds of people, owners of the businesses and then the people who work for them. There is a clear divide and the owners of the businesses are exploiting the workers. There is a divide in class and this would lead to many families suffering. It is the Bourgeoisie (capitalists) who truly organise our society. Therefore with their power they shape the economy and also society.

Feminism is sociology
There are three types of feminist approach:
Pamela Abbott and Claire Wallace stated their feminist concerns and criticisms of mainstream sociology. They argued that sociology was developed and dominated purely by men. Also that the male dominance created biased analysis in which there has not been enough attention placed into the issue’s women face in society.
Liberal feminism – The liberal feminist argue that there have been many changes. They think that changing attitudes and some legislations, creates more equality.
Marxist feminism – The Marxist feminism see most women, mainly the working class as oppressed by capitalism and men or the patriarchal society. Women meet the social, emotional and physical needs of their children in order to get them ready to work in offices and factories. They cook meals for their husbands/partners and their children. They clean their houses and all of this work gets no pay it’s just what is expected of them. They are basically dominated by societal expectations and capitalism; also their husbands.
Radical feminism – Similar to Marxist however, it’s not capitalism that dominates the women it is the men alone. Radical feminists see the socialisation of women as mothers and housewives as a form of oppression.
To conclude liberal feminism want there to be equality between both men and women. Marxist feminism see’s women as working class, they should work then go home and cook for their family and look after their children. Finally radical feminism is when men control the women and they