1. Define social groups, primary groups and secondary groups.
Social Groups is two or more people who identify with and interact with one another
Primary Groups is a small social group who shares personal and lasting relationships
Secondary Groups is a large and impersonal social group who pursue a specific goal or activity
2. List two types of leadership roles and list three leadership styles.
a. Instrumental Leadership: group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks
b. Expressive Leadership: group leadership that focuses on the group’s well-being
a. Authoritarian Leadership “take charge” style that demands obedience
b. Democratic Leadership includes everyone in decision making
c. Laissez-Faire Leadership “leave it alone” allows group to function more or less on its own
3. List three types of formal organizations.
Utilitarian Organizations pay people for their efforts
Normative Organizations have goals people consider morally worthwhile. Sometimes called “Voluntary Associations”
Coercive Organizations are organizations people are forced to join as a form of punishment or treatment
4. List six key elements of the ideal bureaucracy according to Max Weber.
Hierarchy of positions
Rules and Regulations
Formal, written communication
5. List four ways in which today’s organization differ from those of a century ago.
Bureaucratic inefficiency and ritualism
6. Define sex and explain the two characteristics.
Sex is the biological distinction between females and males
a. Primary Sex Characteristics is the genitals, organs used for reproduction
b. Secondary Sex Characteristics is bodily development, apart from the genitals, that distinguishes biologically mature females and males
7. Explain the incest taboo.
Incest Taboo is a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives.
a. It exists in all societies because regulating sexuality, especially reproduction, is necessary element of social organization. limits sexual competition in families by restricting sex to spouses family ties defines people’s rights and obligations toward one another requiring people to marry outside their immediate families
8. List four types of sexual orientation and give and an example of each.
a. Male/Female attracted to female/male
b. sexual attraction to someone of the other sex
a. Male/Female attracted to male/female
b. sexual attraction to someone of the same sex
a. Female/Male attracted to both males and females
b. sexual attraction to people of both sexes
a. Male/Female are not attracted to people of either sex
9. List four key issues and controversies and give an example of each.
a. MTV’s Teen Mom and 16&Pregnant
a. “world’s oldest profession”
b. “Call Girls” are elite prostitutes young, attractive and well educated women, who arranged their own “dates” with clients via texting/telephone
a. Rape the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will most victims are women but about 15% of men are raped too
a. sexual explicit videos, movies, and magazines, “sex lines” telephone, thousands of Internet websites
10. List the three theories of sexuality.
Structural-functional theory highlights society’s need to regulate sexual activity and especially reproduction
Symbolic-interaction theory emphasizes the various meaning people attach to sexuality
Social-conflict theory links sexuality to social inequality
11. Define deviance, crime, social control and the criminal justice system.
Deviance the recognized violation of cultural norms
Crime the violation of a society’s formally enacted criminal law
Social Control attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behavior
Criminal Justice System organizations that respond to alleged