Sociology: Sociology and Social Stratification Social Essay

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Pages: 6

Chapter 5: Social Interaction and Structure
Social Interaction: process by which we act toward and react to people around us
Social Structure: pattern of behavior that governs people's relationships
Status: position in social hierarchy that comes with a set of expectations
Status Set: a collection of social statuses that a person occupies
Ascribed Status: an inborn status, little control over; race Achieved Status: is a position that we earn; athlete
Status Inconsistency: occupying social positions that create conflict because of their ranking
Role: behaviors expected of a person in a particular status -Role Set: different roles attached to a single status
Role Conflict: two or more roles that conflict -Role Strain: demands among roles within a single status
Self- fulfilling Prophecy: Thomas Theorem. If men define situations as real, real in their consequences
Social Exchange Theory: Maximizing rewards; minimizing costs. Most satisfying when balance. Big Bang
Online communication: 80% of American adults use the internet. Biggest divide: among social classes
Chapter 7: Crime
Strain Theory: people engage in deviance when there is a strain between goals and means
Conformist: accept goals and means -Innovator: accept goals but reject means. Ex: cheat on test, lie on resume, drug dealer
Ritualist: reject goals but accept means. Accept social position, but still work hard -Retreatist: reject goals and means. Ex: Dropout -Rebellion: replace goals and means. Alienated from society
Differential Associations Theory: people learn deviance through association with deviance
Broken Windows Theory: people are more likely to commit greater crimes if they get away with the first offense. Philip Zimbardo. Parked a car and smashed a window, days later a family took important things then all the important things were gone
Labeling Theory: deviance is consequence of external judgments that modify a person's self-concept
Deviance: any behavior (drinking too much), beliefs (Goths), or situation (unwed mother), that violates social norms. Social situations and social structure.
Crime: violation of law that is punishable with fines, jail and other sanctions. Since 1990 the rates are lower
Social control: techniques and strategies that regulate behavior
Punishment: to deprive a person of things of value
Retribution: premise that punishment should fit the crime -Deterrence: instilling a fear of punishment.
Rehabilitation: reforming the offender to prevent later offenses -Societal protection: unable to commit additional crimes
Functionalist: deviance and crime are normal parts of the social structure. Affirms cultural values and norms
Emile Durkheim: "there is nothing abnormal about deviance"
Anomie: (normlessness): condition which people are unsure of how to behave because of absent, conflicting, or confusing social norms. Brooks from Shawshank
Conflict: Focus: social inequality. Powerful groups control the law -Corporate crime: illegal acts of a corporation or people acting on its behalf -Organized crime: business supplying illegal goods or services for profit
Victimless crimes: exchange of illegal goods or services among adults -Recidivists: previous offenders who commit new crimes
Chapter 8: Social Stratification
Social Stratification: hierarchical ranking of people who have different access to resources
Open system: individual achievement -Closed system: limited by ascribed statuses. Ex: skin color, race, social class that you are born into -Caste: based on heredity (India). Social class is determined by birth. The untouchables are so low in the social class no one wants to touch them and they have no chance of moving up the social class.
Prestige: respect attached to social positions -Power: ability to achieve goals or maintain influence
Power elite: C. Wright Mills. group of white men that make decisions in our society, political leaders