History Of Sociology

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Sociology 2001
History of Sociology (Chapter 1)
Hunter/Gatherers > Villages > City > Industrial Revolution > Globalization
Agricultural Revolution in combination with specialization lead to the beginning of progress
Augustine Conte
Observe, research, hypothesis, experiment, analyze, conclusion
Different degrees of levels in experimentation whether small or large
Herbert Spencer
First person to use the term “Sociology”
Karl Marx ( Industrial revolution)
Responsible for the “Conflict Theory”
Lived during industrial time in which factory owners paid workers as little as possible for as much work as possible and the workers wanted as much money as possible for as little work as possible
He believed this would lead to an armed revolution
Instead it lead to the development of the middle class
Capital- items that you can trade for goods and services (money)
In Sociology capital refers to just about everything dealing with the social network, human capital, etc.
Came up with Versteben
Wrote about the changing from the primate state to industrial times(aka the timeline at the top)
Dynamic Equilibrium- trust that the farmers will farm enough for everyone to eat; trust that society will function
Most famous for his research on suicide
Hypothesis that living in a Protestant community over a Catholic community would affect the chance of suicide
Quantitative- Large surveys, large scale data
Often dealing with numbers rather than individuals (groups)
Measurement- How you define what you are measuring
Qualitative- Interviews, focus groups, participant observation
Specialization started at the Village level
Specialization- people began having individual jobs instead of knowing the basics of everything
Barter System- also existed at Village level. Worked that you loan someone something and they are indebted to you and if you do not help them when asked you would be basically shunned by the village
City Level
Sociology begins at the City level
How does a city function in knowing that enough resources will be present?
Multiple theories about this
Globalization Level
3 Paradigms:
Conflict Theory
Studied through both Quantitative and Qualitative methods
Studied at the Macro level
Structural Functionalism
Studied on the Macro level
Studied through the Quantitative method
Symbolic interactionism
Studied at the Micro level
Studied using the Qualitative method
Humans act toward things on the based on the meanings that they ascribe toward those thing
You learn how to act towards certain symbols and you begin to act towards those symbols in a similar way
However your feelings of those things change over time by your own personality and as you learn more about those things
developed an idea that basically that every interaction has a general script that is expected people will often act and perform how they are expected to in situations

Culture= Beliefs, Practices, etc. comprised of all the beliefs, practices etc. that people exhibit not the people themselves
We learn about culture as we hear and act in a community
Our language shapes our culture and our thought and perceptions
Culture is inherited as well between generations
Culture can be transferred from one group to another
Culture is broken into Material and Non-material
Things, belongings, objects
Interacted with on a daily basis
Grocery store- the items in the store
Take a shower
Class- sitting in the room interacting in the class
Ideas, abstract, beliefs, etc.
Freedom, capitalism, etc.
Grocery store- represents convenience, capitalism, abundance of food, choice of diet
Netflix- entertainment value
Take a shower- idea of hygiene
Class- that we have a multimillion dollar campus means we value education
Majority Culture- the idea of culture on a larger spectrum of one shared idea
Sub Culture- groups that share and identification within a Majority Culture