1- What is Atom and what is it made of Atom is a Greek word meaning indivisible, it is the smallest part of matter having the characteristics of the element, it is made of nucleus and orbit, nucleus is made of P+ and n0 and orbit holds the e--
2- What is Nucleus and its components
Nucleus occupies the center of the atom a diameter of about 1/100,000 of the size of the atom and it holds the Protons (P+) and neutrons (1n0).
3- What protons and neutrons or nucleons are made of
Until mid-twentieth century it was believed that P, n and e are the basic element of the atom and were called elementary particles. Then it was found that P and n can be broken down too and they are made of particles that is called quarks.
4- What is gluon
Protons and neutrons are made of quarks and held together by the strong force generated by gluon exchange between quarks
5- Protons have + charge and like charges ripple, how come they are together in the nucleus
It is believed the same charge particles reject upto certain distance (or Coulomb law is valid to certain distance) and when that distance passed another force that is called Strong nuclear force takes over that is stronger that Coulomb’s law.
6- What are mesons medium-sized elementary particle: an elementary particle such as a pion or kaon that has a rest mass between that of an electron and a proton and participates in the strong interaction. Mesons consist of a quark and an antiquark, and have a spin that is zero or an integer.
7- What is atomic number, atomic mass number and the difference between atomic mass number and the relationship between them
Atomic number is the number of protons in the atom it is also the number of square in the periodic table usually symbolized by letter Z. Atomic Mass Number is the sum of the number of protons and electrons, it is usually symbolized by letter A and in general elements of the periodic table in general is shown as ZAXN where X stand foe element, A, N and Z respectively stands for atomic mass number, the number of neutrons and the atomic number.
8- What is the chart of nuclide
the row has all the isotopes of the same element so the number of neutrons changes in the row or the horizontal axis is neutrons and the vertical line are all isotones or all the elements that have the same number of neutrons but different number of protons. The following Fig shows a small segment of a chart of isotopes
9- What is nuclear stability
The graph shows the nuclear stability line and the neutron to proton ratio. The further the n/p ratio is away from the stability line the more probability that the nuclide will be unstable and radioactive.
10- What are the magic numbers
The so-called "magic numbers," with N or Z equal to 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126 correspond to the closure of major nuclear shells (much like the atomic shells of the electrons) and enhance nuclear stability. Isotopes that have a magic number of both protons and neutrons are called "doubly magic" and are exceptionally stable.
11- What is isotope
Isotopes are nuclides with num,ber of protona and different number of neutrons
12- Define double magic and give a couple of example
Isotopes that have a magic number of both protons and neutrons are called "doubly magic" and are exceptionally stable. 2 and 8 are magic numbers He has 2 P and 2 n, similarly Oxygen-16 has 8 P and 8n.
13- What is radioactivity
Radioactivity is the process whereby unstable atomic nuclei release energetic subatomic particles. The word is also used to refer to the subatomic particles themselves. This phenomenon is most easily observed in the heavy