Direct: Assassination of archduke Francis Fernandina of Austria - Hungary
Indirect: Nationalism: The love for ones country. Imperialism : Extension of one nation control over their land. Militarism: The policy of building up weaponry. Alliance system: The partnership of countries against other.
Schlieffen plan: Germany would face a war on two fronts. Germany wanted to avoid this at all costs. Germany planned to defeat France rapidly and then turn to the eastern front for a major offensive on Russia. Germany attacked France from behind.
Trench: Lice was never ending in trenches, trench foot was a infection on the feet possible amputation.
Rose rifle: The Ross rifle was a straight-pull bolt action .303 inch-caliber rifle produced in Canada from 1903 until 1918
Robert Borden: Promised 2500 solders to Britain but so many people volunteered that he could sent 32000 people. Introduced income tax to help pay for war. Started conscription.
Minister of militia: Sam huge made Canadian use rose rifle which was very bad
Conscription: process of forcing citizens to join the war effort. propaganda: during the war there were poster that encouraged people to enlist.
The home front : victory bonds, women's start to work in factories, more production of food on farms.
Women during WW1: worked in ammunition factories, but got low wages with long hours of work. Prohibition, fight to make alcohol illegal. In 1916 federal government women get right to vote.
Date: April 22 - 24, 1915 Location: Belgium, western front Description: Germans release 160 tons of chlorine gas into the wind, first use of mass destruction weapon. allied forces pressed urine soaked rags over their mouths and noses to avoid the poison gas. Germans on high ground. French retreated. attack not successful. Role of Canadians: Canadian wanted to protect western front Number of causalities: The allied forces were victorious, but not without loss, Canadian suffered 6000 causalities, 1/3 of the force, of whom 2000 died. Importance to Canada: Build strong reputation for Canadians-- Untrained men became into skillful solders.
Battle : Somme
July 1 - November 13, 1916 France Most disastrous battle, Canadian s fought under general Haig, British failed to take out Germans machine guns post. 90% of the regiment was killed or wounded. Go over the top and took out Germans Allied lost 5700 on first night, Canadians lost 24000, total 1.25 million.
Canadians showed they were true fighters and were second to none.
Battle : vimy ridge
April 9 - 12, 1917 France
Highest point in Canadian military achievement - attack was successful, Germans were on high grounds, allies had failed to take control of vimy ridge and it was up to Canadians. Canada was prepared and use creeping barrage strategy. Canadian role was to capture vimy ridge 3500 Canadian dead Canadians proved they were effective; courageous and determined to win. They proved they did not need British officers to command Canadian solders. Battle : passchendale
Oct - November 1917 Flanders, Belgium led by Douglas Haig , a British general. He wanted to break through the German front. Germans on high ground. waist deep in mud. minister of militia estimated 16000 causalities. Arthur curie proved to be a smart leader, attack was successful, captured passchendale. Canadians :15654 ,Total : 6000000. Nine soldiers were awarded Victoria cross.
Billy bishop: Canada's most famous flying ace in WW1. Arthur Currie: The minister of militia. John McCrae: doctor, solider and poet with the Canadian field artillery at Ypres.
War in air: Canada did not have an air force in 1914, so Canadians joined the