The Spanish-American War (April 25, 1898-September 12, 1898) began as a result of American efforts to intervene in Cuba’s attempt at gaining independence from Spain. It ultimately marked the rise of the United States as a global military power. Cubans had been seeking independence from Spain for many years, but were unsuccessful while Spain increased tariffs on American products sold in Cuba. This dramatically increased Cuban cost of living and kept the Cubans suppressed. Jose Marti, leader of a rebel alliance, established the Cuban Revolutionary Party in 1892. Marti sought funds for weapons from Cuban-Americans and gained allies in labor organizations and the press. Sugar was considered Cuba’s chief product. It accounted for 75 percent of Cuba’s wealth and was a main source of Spanish revenue. Maximo Gomez, a senior rebel commander, ordered the burning of cane fields and sugar mills in an attempt to deem the island useless to Spain. As a result, the value decreased to $13 million from $60 million. A new policy, reconcentracion, was issued in an attempt to control and defeat Cuban rebels. The new policy was carried out by General Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau. Country people were to be relocated within Spanish lines and denied food, shelter, and other aid. Approximately 500,000 Cubans were placed in concentration camps with no shelter and little food. Hundreds of thousands died as a result of the reconcentracion policy. Despite these drastic measures, Weyler was unsuccessful in overcoming the rebellion. By this time, the cost of fighting the rebellion had nearly bankrupted Spain’s treasury. In retrospect, America’s newspapers were possibly Cuba’s greatest ally. “Appropriately, their tendency toward exaggeration and even outright invention, the yellow newspapers had taken their nickname from a comic strip, ‘The Yellow Kid,’ the first comic to be printed in color.” By 1895 William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal) and Joseph Pulitzer (The World) were engaged in a rivalry war. Often they used stories (sometimes true, sometimes fabricated) of Cuban rebels and Spanish cruelty to boost sales. Meanwhile, President Grover Cleveland followed a policy of rigorous impartiality. In 1897, upon President William McKinley entering office, McKinley told Cleveland he hoped to preserve neutrality as effectively as he. In August of 1897, Spain offered Cuba complete autonomy but still under the Spanish flag. Cubans rejected this offer unwilling to agree to peace without complete independence. On January 12, 1898, a small riot broke out in the streets of Havana in protest of Spain’s offer of autonomy. On February 15, 1898, Maine, an American battleship, sank in Havana Harbor after suffering a massive explosion. There is a vast difference in opinion on whether the explosion was indeed an accident. American investigators ultimately attributed the incident as an external explosion that had been set off under the ship’s hull. Spain’s investigation came to the opposite conclusion: the explosion originated within the ship. (Other investigations in later years came to various contradictory conclusions.) Theodore Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary to the Navy, made his outspoken opinion an aggressive campaign for war, “The Maine was sunk by an act of dirty treachery on the part of the Spaniards.” The sinking of the Maine came at a tense time, thus sparking the Spanish-American War. McKinley wanted to avoid war and demanded Spain to declare a cease-fire in Cuba. Spain involuntarily agreed to allow Cuba an autonomous government, but this message came too late. McKinley asked Congress for authority to send American troops to Cuba. The Teller Amendment was proposed to ensure the U.S. would not attempt to gain control of Cuba. The U.S. formally declared war on April 25, 1898. The first major battle was The Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898 led by Commodore George Dewey. The U.S. defeated Spain in a matter of
of segregation amongst the African American population, acquisition of the Philippines, and encouragement of violence as a result of the Spanish-American War.
Imperialism is the policy of taking control over countries around the world for political and economic gain. Since its formation, the United States has imperialized several countries, including the Philippines, Cuba, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Imperialism was incorporated during the Spanish-American War, a four-month battle between the United…
Factors leading to the Spanish American War
when newspapers distort/ fabricate the truth to sell more newspapers. False
headlines are hella exciting. Really blatantly lying
changes to the format, bigger bolder headlines and pictures
2 Papers really headlined this
New York Journal (Hearst)
New York World (Pulitzer)
This emotionally involved the american public and made the public want war w/ Spain
Island of Cuba
Late 1890s its a colony of Spain
Cubans are starting to revolt…
Growth of America as an Empire
__________________- Stronger countries extend political, economic, or political control over weaker nations
American Imperialism based on 3 factors
Growth of _______________strength
Growth of new ______________ markets
Spread cultural __________________
Alfred T. Mahan- urged America to build strong navy
1883-1890- nine steel hulled fleet ships
Modern battleships such as Maine and Oregon
Denise Mae Abril
HST 202 - 08
03 June 2013
U.S. Foreign Policy - Spanish-American War, World War I and II
Foreign policy is a key component in maintaining a peaceful and stabilized world. In order for countries to work with each other cooperatively, boundaries and limitations must be established by each country so that others will know how to interact economically, socially, and militarily without making unapproved actions. As a leading empire, the United States. constituted that an ideological…
Tp what extent was the Spanish-American War a turning point in the development of American foreign policy?
The Spanish-American War of 1898 could be seen as the pivotal point in foreign policy as it marks America’s first engagement with a foreign enemy in the dawning age of modern warfare however, one could also argue that the idea had always existed in American politics.
Until the end of the nineteenth century, American foreign policy essentially followed the guidelines laid down by George…
The Spanish–American War was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, the result of American intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. American attacks on Spain's Pacific possessions led to involvement in the Philippine Revolution and ultimately to the Philippine–American War.
Revolts against Spanish rule had occurred for some years in Cuba. There had been war scares before, as in the Virginius Affair in 1873. In the late 1890s, American public opinion was agitated by anti-Spanish…
American Civilization II
13 September 2014
A misunderstanding of history can lead to assumptions about what kind of nation America was and has become over many centuries. Robert Kagan’s book, “A Dangerous Nation”, details his interpretations of the political, social, economic factors, and the aftermath of the Spanish-American War. This paper will make an informed decision on whether the war was justified or not by taking into account St. Augustine’s…
declaration of war against Spain in 1898 provide a revealing view of the forces shaping foreign policy as the nation entered the twentieth century. America's long tradition of isolationism gave way to a seemingly irresistible imperialist impulse. In 1895, nationalist rebels in Cuba tried to put an end to Spain's colonial control, and by 1897 the cry of "Cuba Libre" attracted a powerful following in the United States. Insurgents controlled over half of the island, mostly inland, while the Spanish held the…
Short Answer = 100 pts.
Multiple Choice, Matching, True and False, Short Answer
Multiple Choice/T&F (25 q’s)
Things to study:
•Why go to war with Spain?
•Invested in Cuba
•US would have Economic benefits of Cubans independence
•Was an add on to the Monroe Doctrine
•Says that US will interfere in Latin American affairs when necessary to maintain economic and political stability in the western hemisphere
•this prevented Europe from using debt to interfere…
to gain an empire
American borders already stretched from Atlantic to Pacific.
America bought Alaska from Russia.
It was time to look overseas.
3 Causes of American Expansion
Desire for new markets and raw materials
US economy boomed with products to trade and needed resources
Companies built overseas factories.
Need new markets to prevent financial panics
Desire for naval bases and coaling stations
International competition for colonies would leave America behind.
American Security - 1890 funding…