PLATEAU –An elevated expanse of land usually consisting of relatively level flat terrain.
FERTILE – (Capable of) producing abundant vegetation and/or crops.
TNCs – A firm that owns production facilities in more than one country. An enterprise that produces outside its country of origin and engages in international production.
CASH CROPS – Agricultural crops produced for their commercial value rather than for personal use eg feeding livestock. Examples are wheat, cotton, tobacco and coffee.
EXPORT – (verb) a function of international trade where goods produced in once country are shipped to another country for sale. (noun) a good or service sold abroad/exported.
HDI – Human Development Index. A tool developed by the United Nations to measure and rank countries' levels of social and economic development based on four criteria: Life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling and gross national income per capita. Tracks and compares changes in development levels over time.
RATE OF NATURAL INCREASE – aka RNI. A measure of population excluding the effects of migration. Calculated as the difference between the number of births and the number of deaths per year of a population. Developing countries usually have a positive or high RNI.
GDP PER CAPITA – An approximation of the value of goods produced per person in a country - an indicator of a country’s standard of living. Calculated dividing the country’s GDP (total output) by the population.
IMPORT – Opposite of export. (noun) goods/services of foreign origin bought into a country. (verb) to bring in from a foreign source – also a method of international trade.
HIV-POSITIVE – Human immunodeficiency virus, a virus that can cause AIDS. If positive, you are a carrier of the disease, transferred by blood, semen, breast milk.
HIV-AIDS – Human immunodeficiency virus infection - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). As the illness progresses, it interferes more and more with the immune system, making the person much more likely to get infections that do not usually affect people who have working immune systems. This disease carries significant economic impacts as there is no cure, just treatment with expensive medication.
ISOLATED – Maintaining minimal contact with others; solitary. Far away from other places or buildings.
SUBSISTENCE FARMERS – Self-sufficient farmers who focus on growing enough produce to support themselves and their family.
SMALLHOLDINGS - Small sized land rented or sold to a farmer by the local authorities which in third world countries, usually support a single family with a mixture of cash crops and subsistence farming grown.
INVESTMENT – Economically, a purchase of goods that are used in the future to create wealth.
HOUSEHOLDS – A domestic unit consisting of the house and its occupants.
EXTENDED FAMILY – A family group that extends beyond the ‘nuclear family’ (spouse and children)
CYCLE OF POVERTY – aka Development Trap. The set of factors or events by which poverty within a family, once started, is likely to endlessly continue – those contained are said to be trapped for at least three generations.
LOW PRODUCTIVITY – Productivity is a measure of output from production. If the figure is low, INPUTS – Resources such as people, raw materials, energy, information, or finance that are put into a system (such as an economy or a manufacturing plant) to obtain a desired output.
ARTIFICIAL FERTILISER – Inorganic material added to soil to improve its fertility and sustain plant growth by adding to its chemical composition. However, they can harm the ocean and deplete fish stocks.
PESTICIDE – A chemical substance designed to kill the