The cotton gin not only changed the economy of the south, it also helped transform the north.
South -> materials
North -> Industry
Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin and contributed to modern warfare. Whitney devised a machine to create muskets with interchangeable parts
Long staple on Sea Inland Cotton was easy to clean with its long fibers and smooth black seeds.
Only grew along the Atlantic Coast or on the offshore of Georgia and South Carolina. Not enough to supply the demand
Short staple cotton could grow inland but took hours to pick because of its sticky seeds
Improving transportation by sea
Improving domestic trade
Westward to the Mississippi river by steamboat
Robert Fulton perfected the steamboat. Worked with Robert Livingston
Clermont -> name of one of the steamboats. English engine built on the Hudson River.
Two other rivers used for trade were the Ohio and the Mississippi
Turnpike Era was paying tolls to go from one place to another on land
Clermont was after the Louisiana purchase
Hamiltonian Framework remained in tact
Federalist program for assuming the Revolutionary War debt of the states
Bank of the United States
Protective Tariff- when goods came in, they could be sold at low prices
Jefferson -> strict constructionist. Legally if something is not mentioned in the constitution, you could not do it.
Hamilton -> loose constructionist
Jefferson -> anti federalist, pro states rights, pro nullification, pro France
He wasn’t sure how to take care of his family and end slavery. He said one day, slavery would break the country in two.
Despite Federalist fears, Jefferson showed unexpected moderation.
Undid Federalist abuses
Alien and Sedition Acts expired
New Naturalization law 1802
He kicked away only one prop of Hamiltonian system- the excise tax
At a cost of 1,000,000 a year
He got rid of a tax on whiskey
Jefferson and Madison Dynasty of Virginia
Madison served 2 terms, 4th president after Thomas Jefferson
Father of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights
On June 1, 1812 Madison asked Congress to declare war against Britain because it impressed the United States seamen and interfered with trade.
He charged also that the British had stirred up Indian warfare in the Northwest, an area south of Western Great Lakes.
Congress declared war on June 18, 1812.
On June 16 the British foreign minister had announced that orders to blockade U.S. ships would be repealed, but word of this announcement did not reach America until after the war had begun
The constitution is a famous ship of the United States navy. Its popular name is Old Ironside.
Hull is made of oak, and the masts of white pine.
The constitution served on battles with the Barbary powers in 1803 and 1804.
In the War of 1812 it won a battle off the coast of Newfound, against an English warship.
During this battle, a sailor is said to have seen shot from the British guns bouncing off the Constitutions sturdy sides and exclaimed that the ship had sides of iron
The Star Spangled Banner
In the early morning of Sept 14, 1814 Francis Scott Key wrote the words to the song, which became our National Anthem in 1931.
Key had watched the bombardment of Fort McHenry in Baltimore throughout the previous night.
He was on an American truce ship negotiating the release of a friend, whom the British had captured when they burned most of the public buildings in Washington D.C in Aug of 1814. Key got him released.
Treaty of Ghent
On December 24, 1814, in Ghent, Belgium, representatives of Great Britain and the United States signed the treaty ending the war of 1812.
Basically the treaty was an armistice
Neither party gained or lost any land