Part 1: 1. A player is badly winded upon falling to the ground. a) It is likely that the player was hit near the diaphragm or lung area, after coming into contact with a ball or another player, which caused him to fall to the ground. The impact of the fall prevented his lungs from filling with air due to a spasm which caused the diaphragm to contract. When the diaphragm contracts it is extremely painful, and it doesn’t let air into the lungs.
The most obvious and common syptom of being winded, is short breath.
Othe symptoms include, difficulty breathing (especially deeply), and anxiety.
b) If you have been winded, you should stay in a crouched position so that the muscles can relax. It is important to stay calm and take slow and deep breaths. Using the following procedures may also improve the situation:
TOTAPS: Use this procedure to assess the injury. T | Talk to the injured person: Find out about the pain, how the injury happened, where it happened, and if there are any deformities. | O | Observe: Take into consideration all of the surroundings, the position the injured person is in, the size and shape of any injuries, consciousness, mental state, and any facial expression the injured athlete has. | T | Touch: feel around the injury for any lumps, swelling. Tenderness or heat. Check also for soft tissues and broken bones. | A | Active Movement: Do simple functional test for muscles and joints to see if they can move without pain. They should try move the injured area by themselves. | P | Passive Movement: Move the injured area for the person to check for reactions to pain and any instability. | S | Skills Test: after the previous test have been done without any pain, check if the player is able to return to play |
RICER: This method is used for the immediate treatment for the injured player. R | Rest: By resting after an injury, you reduce the likeliness of further damage. A void putting weight on the injured area. | I | Ice: To reduce bleeding, swellings, and pain, apply ice to the injured area. This cools the tissue. Apply it to the injury for 20 minutes every 2 hours for 2-3 days. Do not put the ice pack directly on the skin. Wrap the ice pack in a towel; take extra precautions for people sensitive to cold. | C | Compression: Wrap a bandaged around as well as above and below the injured area. This provides support to the injury and will reduce bleeding and swelling. | E | Elevation: Keep the injured area elevated using a pillow or other item. It should be above the heart level at all times. This reduces bleeding, swelling, and pain. | R | Referral: Seek further medical assistance as soon as possible. They will inform you of the extent of the injury and advise you of the further actions to improve the situations. |
c) Be extremely careful when managing this injury. Do not put a pillow under the injured person’s head, because this closes off the airways. Don’t move the person or give them any food or drink. Seek medical advice right away; do not wait to see how the person reacts. Use the no harm method to manage the injury.
NO HARM: Use the no harm method for the management after the other two procedures have been successfully completed. H | No heat: Because heat increases bleeding, avoid any heat, for example, hot showers, hot water bottles, and heat packs. | A | No alcohol: Alcohol delays the healing by increasing bleeding and swelling. It may also hide the real effects and seriousness of the injury by disguising the pain. | R | No running: Avoid running for a while after the injury, because this will cause blood to flow to the injured area and slow down the healing. | M | No massage: Massage increases blood flow dramatically causing the injury to continue swelling and bleeding. |
2. A player has fallen awkwardly on her arm. After getting up she holds her arm which has a lump on the forearm. a) There are…