Essay on Spring Semester Chem Study Guide

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1. Describe a solid using KMT?
Definite shape, volume, melting point, high density, low rate of diffusion, fixed position 2. Describe a liquid using KMT?
Fluidity, relatively high density, incompressibility, ability to diffuse, surface tension 3. Describe the behavior of an ideal gas using KMT
Follow the assumptions of KMT: expansion, fluidity, diffuse, low density, compressibility, effuse (can pass through small openings) 4. Describe the behavior of an non ideal gas? expansion, fluidity, low density, compressibility, dis/effusion. high pressure and low temps 5. List three examples of gases that behave like an ideal gas
Nobles gases, N2, O2, H2 6. What are the assumptions of the KMT of gases? gases consist of a large number of tiny particles, separated apart, collisions between gas particles, and container walls are elastic, gas particles are in constant, rapid, random motion w/ KE. There are no forces of attraction/repulsion between gas particles. AVG. KE of gas particles depends on the temp of the gas 7. According to KMT, who do liquids form a meniscus
Surface tension effect, which is a strong attraction that pulls the liquid molecules upward along surface, against the pull of gravity. capillary actions, which is the att of surface of liq to the surface of the solid 8. List three examples of amorphous solids? plastic, glass, rubber, semiconductors 9. What types of compounds are compressible
Gases are the most compressible, while liquids are somewhat compressible 10. Define and describe surface tension in a liquid
● A force which tends to decrease surface area to the smallest possible size
● holds particles at surface close together 11. What types of compounds have the average kinetic energy?
● gases or heated compounds

12. Describe the process of evaporation
● particles at the surface of a liquid may have higher avg KE which is enough to diffuse into the air 13. What causes liquids and gases to diffuse
● their fluidity and their higher kinetic energy

14. What causes condensation?
● Gas to liquid. Depends on the temp, att forces/ int mol forces forces get stronger and draws them together.
● Condensation is caused when when some of the gas molecules strike the liquid surface and re enter the liquid 15. What causes the process of sublimation
● solid to gas. Depends on temperature and/or pressure
● molecules experience weaker att. intermolecular forces and molecules spread out solid + energy ←­­­> vapor 16. Why does a volatile liquid evaporate faster than a nonvolatile liquid?
● Volatile liquids has more kinetic energy.
● Volatile: Have relatively weak forces of attraction between particles
● nonvolatile: have strong att forces between particles 17. What point on a phase diagram shows the temperature and pressure that a substitute can exist in all three stages at once
● triple point 18. List three substances that are capable of sublimating
● dry ice, iodine crystal, camphor, arsenic 19­23. Be able to read a phase diagram 24. What type of instrument is used to measure pressure?
● barometer 25. what is pressure?
● force (n) / area (m2) 26­28. Know how to apply the gas laws to problems and solve for unknowns.
● PV/T = PV/T 29­31. Know how to determine changes changes in equilibrium using Le Chatelier’s Principle
● Principle states that if a system at equilibrium is subjected to a stress, the equilibrium is shifted in the direction that tend to relieve the stress
● Change in pressure:
○ increase: reduce # of molecules (shift to side with less molecules)
○ decrease: increase # of molecules (shift to side with more molecules)
○ no effect if both sides have the same number of molecules
● Change in concentration:
○ increase, shift to right (product is more)
● Change in temperature
○ increase: favors endothermic reaction
○ decrease: favors exothermic reaction

32­34. Know how to predict solubility using