SSC/SST Chapter 18 Essay

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Introduction to Geography Chapter 1
• Geography is the study of the interaction of all physical and human phenomena at individual places and of how interactions among places form patterns and organize space.
• Physical geography studies the characteristics of the physical environment.
• Human geography studies human groups and their activities, such as language, industry, and the building of cities. This is a social science
• Most contemporary geographers employ three analytical methods: Area analysis, spatial analysis, geographic systems analysis
• Improvements in transportation and communication links have “shrunk” Earth, so today many activities have expanded their scale of organization to cover the whole globe, which is a process called globalization.
• A formal region is one that exhibits essential uniformity in one or more physical or cultural features, such as a country or a mountain range.
• A functional region is one defined by interactions among places, such as trade or communication.
• Vernacular regions are defined by widespread popular perception of their existence by people within or outside them.
• Diffusion is the process of an item or feature spreading through time.
• Maps that distort size but preserve shape are called conformal maps
• Maps that preserve size but distort shape are called equal-area maps

Contemporary Society Chapter 14 Notes
In most modern societies, the source of ultimate power is the state, because it has a monopoly on the use of force within its borders.
The government consists of a number of individuals who hold power in the name of the state.
The process by which some people or groups acquire and maintain power is called politics.
Government, the institution, may be defined as the pattern of statuses and roles that a society develops to fulfill the need for order within and the need for defense against threats from without. It includes a system of norms, values, laws, and general patterns of behavior that legitimize the acquisition and exercise of power. The institution also determines the relationship of the government to the members of society. In essence, to govern means to control and government can also be defined as the legitimate use of force to control human behavior within specific territorial boundaries.
Social control is the process by which a group induces or forces the individual to behave in a designated way by enforcing taboos, mores, and folkways.
Political control is social control exerted by forces outside the individual, such as laws and agencies in charge of punishing those who violate laws.
The most important function of government is to implement political control. This involves maintaining order, settling disputes, and coordinating the activities of members of society. Government must also protect citizens from external threats. In most societies, civilians are in charge of the government and the military is subordinate to it.
Power can be asserted in a number of ways. One way is to promise a reward in return for compliance. Another is to coerce, or threaten with punishment. Power can be asserted through influence, by being able to manipulate information or to have an effect on values, attitudes, and feelings.
Political power is power exercised by the state through its government. The reason the state can wield power is that people accept its authority.
Authority is power over, or control of, individuals that is socially accepted as right and proper. Authority is the legitimate possession of power.
When people question the legitimacy of their government, the situation is called a crisis of legitimacy and is usually resolved with the overthrow of the government.
Traditional authority - The political authority of the government rests heavily on traditional sources. This is the oldest type of power that people know. Example is the declaration of independence.
Legal – Rational Authority – Legal-rational authority is