August 17, 2014
Stages of Social Development
Eric Erikson has eight different social stages a person must go through as they grow to maturity. Some in which is entirely in our parent’s hands and some are within our teachers. Our parent’s set the foundation on our developmental stage with trust and independence. With the help from teachers, we can accomplish more to help us develop further in the stages of development. However, once we are out of school, it is entirely upon ourselves to continue to develop and become successful before death comes upon us. His first stage is trust vs. mistrust which occurs from birth to eighteen months of age. The result of this stage is to form trust. Erik considered that this was the most vital period in a child’s life. An infant depends solely on their parents and their caregiving plays a significant role in this developmental stage (Cherry). “By developing a sense of trust, the infant can have hope that as new crises arise, there is a real possibility that other people will be there are a source of support,” (McLeod, 2013). Parents are mainly responsible for the development at this stage of their child’s life. It is important for parents to be attentive to their child’s needs so their child’s trust is developed.
Erikson’s second stage is autonomy vs. shame and doubt. This develops from eighteen months to three years old. At this stage children begin to declare their independence and if they’re “criticized, overly controlled, and not have the opportunity to assert themselves they will feel inadequate in their ability to survive, and become dependent upon others,” (McLeod, 2013). Erikson understood that children at this age want to achieve a greater feel of self-control. Therefore, parents and teachers need to always encourage children to be more independent but also protect them from constant failure.
The third stage is initiative vs. guilt. This is established around ages three to six years old. The goal of this stage is to form reason and it is accomplished through exploring and play (Cherry). Children begin to confirm their power through interaction between peers and play (Cherry). If teachers and parents consider the child’s questions as “trivial, a nuisance or embarrassing or other aspects of their behavior as threatening the child may develop the sense of guilt,” (McLeod, 2013). As a teacher, I will always encourage students to ask questions in the classroom. Additionally, I will encouraged them to interact with peers and explore through play to develop in this stage and prepare themselves for their future stages.
In the fourth stage Erik touches on industry vs. inferiority. This stage is around ages six to eleven years old. “The child must achieve self-pride and they do this through social interaction, mainly at school,” (Cherry). Children at this stage begin to do difficult tasks and they try to conquer harder and newer skills (Cherry). Teachers start to take an important role in their student’s lives at this stage when they begin to teach specific skills. I will always challenge students in their learning to develop in this stage. By challenging students, they will put in more effort in learning and also have fun for those who like competiveness. Students will also build self-esteem by feeling they have achieved a complicated task.
Identity vs. confusion is the fifth development stage from ages twelve to eighteen where teens start to achieve their identity. Prior to this stage, they explore and discover their independence. At this stage they must develop a “sense of self and personal identity” (Cherry). “Failure to establish a sense of identity within society can lead to role confusion,” (McLeod, 2013). As a teacher, I want to make sure my students