Stages and Strategies of Collective Bargaining Essay

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The ILO Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention (No. 98), 1949 describes collective bargaining as:

"Voluntary negotiation between employers or employers' organizations and workers organizations, with a view to the regulation of terms and conditions of employment by collective agreements."

Collective bargaining could also be defined as negotiations relating to terms of employment and conditions of work between an employer, a group of employers or an employers' organization on the one hand, and representative workers' organizations on the other, with a view to reaching agreement.

There are several essential features of collective bargaining, all of which cannot be reflected in a single definition or description of
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The other side makes counter-packages.
Stage 6: Bargaining
The packages put forth by either side identify a common ground, or a core that facilitates settlement between the two parties to the dispute. The collective bargaining process, however, continues with each side trying to dilute the other’s package by a counter package, each time saying that this is “last and final” concession they will make.
This session usually involves off the record conversations, some joint exercises to resolve a deadlock, and very often culminate in a marathon round of lengthy and hectic discussions to resolve last minute glitches before both sides finally reach a settlement.
Stage 7: Closing
Closing is the final step in the collective bargaining process. Closing denotes settlement time, or the time negotiation ends. The negotiators walk back over the negotiations and summarize all positions, noting down agreements reached, issues withdrawn, and issued deferred, and clear ambiguities.
Selecting the right time to close depends on the skill of the negotiator. Closing too early may lead to the negotiator’s side losing out on further concessions that the other party may be willing to make, and closing too late may lead to some strategic advantage or position of mutual ground being lost. The prevailing mood of the workers and the economic climate greatly influences the closing time as well.
Stage 8: Agreeing
The final stage of the collective bargaining process is agreeing,