Cheese’s which have been given the mold, Penicillium roqueforti are referred to as “Blue Cheese”. The mold is responsible for the cheese often having spots or veins of blue or green mold. The growth process occurs most often when the cheese is stored in a cave or similar damp, cool area.
P. roqueforti was first described by American Mycologist (branch of science dealing with study of Fungi), Charles Thom in 1906. It was originally a heterogeneous species of blue-green sporulating fungi, they were grouped into different species because of their different phenotypes. In 1949, they were combined into one species by Raper and Thom and have been reclassified approximately twice since.
The mold is named after a French town called Roquefort with caves full of naturally occurring Penicillium mold spores. The cheesemakers in the town of Roquefort created, and still make, the famous blue cheese called Roquefort.
Original recipes for Roquefort cheese required that cheesemakers leave loaves of rye bread in the caves near the town. The loaves became hosts to the ambient mold in the air. After a month or so, the mold inside the loaves of bread was dried, ground and combined with cheese curd, then the wheels of cheese were aged in the same caves to encourage the growth of mold that flavored the cheese.
Although Penicillium roqueforti isn’t necessarily dangerous. There are 200 other known species of Penicillium, some of which can present a danger, as they produce toxins known as mycotoxins. These are especially dangerous for those with allergies or compromised immune systems, for example; Penicillium chrysogenum is the most common specie found in indoor environments and is responsible for many allergic reactions in those with a sensitivity. In addition, one of the most widely known uses of Penicillium is the production drugs that halt the growth of bacteria, known as “Antibiotics”. Other species of Penicillium are useful in the food and drug industry and have beneficial effects of humans.
The Bad Propionibacterium acnes
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), is a gram-positive human skin commensal that prefers anaerobic growth conditions ( does not require oxygen to mature) and is involved in the development of acne. Several studies have indicated that specific strains of P. acnes bacteria are more commonly associated with acne vulgaris (acne).
Previously known by the name, Corynebacterium parvum, the first documentation of P. acnes was the; “The Pathogenic Role of Corynebacterium acnes in Acne Vulgaris” (Kirschbaum and Kligman,1963) . But, Acne is noted to have been a nuisance for humans before we had a system of writing in place. Ancient Egyptian pharaohs reportedly suffered acne breakouts. The term acne became the term to describe these skin eruptions in the 5th century A.D. in Greece.
Acne is the 8th most common disease worldwide, affecting more than 45 million people in the United States alone and 650 million people worldwide; it’s estimated 20% of all visits to the Dermatologists (Doctors specializing in Skin/ Skin Treatment) are related to treatment of acne. Acne occurs most commonly during adolescence, affecting an estimated 80–90% of teenagers in the Western world.
There are four major factors responsible for causing acne. Together they can cause characteristics associated with acne (symptoms) such as pimples, whiteheads, and blackheads. They are:
Overactive oil glands ( Also known as sebaceous glands.)
Blockage of the skin pores
Activity of normal skin bacteria
Acne develops as a result of blockages in the follicles, and because P. acnes uses sebum as a nutrient for growth, it increases in follicles during puberty. Acne isn’t contagious between people, but it is made up of bacteria, which if not careful can make its way into other pores in your body.
Some ways Acne can spread:
By Touching and Scratching
By Spreading the Liquid
By Being Careless