Lecture - Influences on Action
What other things influence Strategy?
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• In terms of strategy development need to consider :– Other external forces
• Do we control destiny?
• Are we in the “Hands of the Gods”?
Does organisation history constrain its choices?
Those in charge – Leader or Manager?
Some Attributes of Leaders
A need for Double-Loop learning
Mintzbergs’ thoughts on strategies
The Deliberate & Emergent Strategy paradox
The impact of Organisational Growth
• Voluntarism / Deliberate
– Strategies are deliberate
– Create own destiny
– Free will
• Determinism / Emergent
– Freedom of choice is an illusion
– All events and human actions & choices are fully determined by preceding events
– Cause and effect
Men & Lobsters
“Lobster pots are designed to catch lobsters. A man entering a mansized lobster pot would become suspicious of the narrowing tunnel, he would shrink from the drop at the end; and if he fell in, would recognise the entrance as a possible exit and climb out again – even if he were the shape of a lobster………
• Man-traps are dangerous only in relation to the limitations on what men can see and value and do. The nature of the trap is a function of the nature of the trapped……
• I start with the trap, because it is more consciously familiar; we the trapped tend to take our own state of mind for granted – which is partly why we are trapped…..”
Vickers G. (1970) Freedom in a Rocking Boat, London, Allen Lane p16
Vickers (1970) is saying
– Men can act like Lobsters
– They are limited by what they can see and value and do
– They cannot see that they are in their own trap – Sometimes humans / leaders / organisations act in a similar fashion to Lobsters
– Watch out if your leader is a lobster!!
Managers or Leaders?
• Are Managers and
Leaders the same?
• Managers tend to control systems and processes • Can managers become leaders?– I guess so, as they must have started somewhere, sometime in an organization Table 11.1 Leadership & management activities,
Understanding strategic management (Henry, 2008)
Leadership activities Management activities Dealing with change
Coping with organizational complexity
Developing a vision & setting a direction for the organization
Planning & budgeting
Aligning stakeholders with organization’s vision Organizing & staffing to achieve strategy
Motivating & inspiring employees Controlling behaviour & problem solving to ensure strategy is implemented Recognise & reward success Table 11.1
NiccolÒ Machiavelli 1469 - 1527
• Born in Florence on 3rd May 1469 – died in Florence 22nd
• Machiavelli lived in a fast-changing political situation
• He was a diplomat for the Florentine government travelling to and from other countries
• He gained a lot of political experiences at a very senior level in government
• As a result of these experiences he contributed literature to help Leaders (Princes) govern their country
• His advice startled / shocked the politically conscious outside of Italy…and still does today
• Here is one example there are many others in his texts
The Prince by NiccolÒ Machiavelli
• In this famous text Machiavelli identifies some attributes of a Prince / Leader
“Pope Alexander VI did nothing else but deceive men, nor ever thought of doing otherwise, and he always found victims; for there never was a man who had greater power in asserting, or with greater oaths would affirm a thing, yet would observe it less; nevertheless his deceits always succeeded according to his wishes, because he well understood this side of man………to appear merciful, faithful, humane, religious,