Strength Training and Group Fitness Activities Essay

Submitted By evalene1
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Pages: 11

PDHPE – Year 11 Course summary How do the Musculoskeletal and Cardiorespiratory systems of the body influence an respond to movement * Skeletal System
Major bones involved in movement:
- Spine – Cervical (6), Thoracic (12) and Lumbar (7)
-Humorous
- radius
- Ulna
- Femur
- Tibia
- Fibula
- Phalanges
- Metacarpals
- Tarsal/carpals Structure and Function of Synovial Joints Synovial Cavity | A space where two bones meet | Synovial fluid | a rich viscous fluid hat acts as a lubrication to the bones in the synovial cavity also plays a role in the cleanup of tissue debris from daily wear and tear on the joint | Articular cartilage | Covers the end of bones, provides cushioning and reduces friction between the bones in the joint | Joint capsule | encloses the bones, tissues and fluid | Synovial Membrane | secretes the fluid into the joint. The fluid acts as a lubricant to reduce friction and also provides nourishment to the joint. Very little fluid is actually secreted; just enough to cover the articulating surfaces in a tin film – there is normally 0.5 mL or less of fluid in the knees. | Meniscus | cartilage that grows inwards from the joint capsule to absorb shock, reduce pressure and enhance stability | Tendons | muscle to Bone | Ligaments | bone to bone | Bursa sac | filled with synovial fluid that acts as a lubricant to facilitate smooth movement of the joint. | Type | Definition | picture | Location | Pivot | One bone fits into the ring like structure of another bone – rotation around the bone | | Radius around the ulna | Gliding/plane | Usually flat and allows small gliding movements | | Vertebrae | Saddle Joint | Shaped like a saddle – concave in one and convex in another | | Thumb base | Ball and Socket Joint | Bone has a smooth head that fits into the cup like structure of another | | Humorous fits into shoulder | Hinge joint | One bone has a convex surface that fits into a concave of another | | Elbow joint | Conydyloid/Ellipsoidal Joint | An oval convex surface where one bone slides over or fits into similar shaped bone | | Carpals in hand | Joint Actions Joint Action | Description | | Example | Flexion | Decrease in the angle | | Upward phase of a | Extension | of the jointIncrease of the angle between the joint | | bicep curlDownward phase of a bicep curl | Abduction | Moving away from the midline | | Moving up away in lateral arm work | Adduction | Moving toward the midline | | Moving arms towards body in lateral arm work | Inversion | Rotation of the foot so that the sole turns inwards | | Sitting in a “Butterfly” position at the gym | Eversion | Rotation of the foot so that the sole turn outwards | | Sliding foot along ground when trying to stop suddenly | Rotation | The bone turning on a central axis | | Rotation of arm during a butterfly stroke in swimming | Circumduction | The movement of a limb in a circular motion | | Freestyle swimming – arm movement | Pronation | Palm facing downwards | | Pouring liquid out of a container | Supernation | Palm facing up – towards sky | | Pulling back bottle after pouring | Dorsiflexion | Pulling toes towards sky | | Lower phases of a squat | Plantarflexion | Pointing toes to ground | | Skateboarding – pushing foot after it leaves ground | * Muscular System
Major Muscles involved in movement Deltoid | Shoulder | Flex, abduct, extension, Circumduction, (internal and external rotation) | Biceps Brachii | Upper arm | Flex, supination | Tricep | Under upper arm | Extend | Latissimus Dorsi | Under shoulder | Extension | Trapizius | Back of neck | Adduct, rotates upwards | Pectorals | Boobs | Flexion, adducts | Erector Spinae | Spine | Holds spine up | Gluteus Maximus | Bum | Extends, rotation | Hamstrings | Back of leg | Flexion | Quadriceps | Front of upper leg | Extension | Gastrocnemius | Back of lower leg |…