A model of stress Episode:
Personality often determines the extent to which a potential stressor becomes a real stressor and actually indicates stress.
Stressor: environmental events or conditions that have the potential to induce stress.
Stress: psychological reaction to the demands inherent in a stressor
Stress reactions: behavioural, psychological, & physiological consequences of stress (passive/active)
Stressors in the Organization:
Interpersonal conflict: Interpersonal can be a potent stressor, especially for those with strong avoidance tendencies. The entire range of conflict, from personality clashes to intergroup strife, is especially likely to cause stress when it leads to real or perceived attack on our self-esteem or integrity. Although conflict can lead to stress in many settings outside of work, we often have the option of terminating the relationship, of "choosing our friends", as it were. This option is often not available at work.
Bullying is repeated negative behaviour directed toward one or more individuals of lower power or status that creates a hostile work environment. Research has clearly demonstrated that it is a potent source of stress and negative well-being.
Bullying: stress-inducing form of conflict. It is most commonly a more subtle form of psychological aggression and intimidation. This can take many forms, such as incessant teasing, demeaning criticism, social isolation, or sabotaging others' tools and equipment. An essential feature of bullying is its persistence, and a single harsh incident would not constitute such behaviour. Rather it is the repeated teasing, criticism, or undermining that signals bullying. Another key feature of the bullying process is some degree of power or status imbalance between the bully and the victim. The essential point is that victims of bullying and mobbing experience stress because they feel powerless to deal with perpetrators.
Sexual harassment is a type of discrimination based on sex. When someone is sexually harassed in the workplace, it can undermine their sense of personal dignity. It can prevent them from earning a living, doing their job effectively, or reaching their full potential. Sexual harassment can also poison the environment for everyone else. If left unchecked, sexual harassment in the workplace has the potential to escalate to violent behaviour.