Student: Feedback and Human Body Essay

Submitted By lannab09346
Words: 1887
Pages: 8

(7th and 8th ed.)


LECTURE OUTLINE - UNIT 1 The Human Body: An Orientation
[*The following lecture outline follows your textbook very closely; read the outline and the associated sections in Chapter 1 of your textbook (at the same time); be sure to view the figures and tables in the book (shown in this outline in parentheses); there is a lot of material in the textbook that we do not have time to cover in this course, or will cover later on; please read this extra content, but keep in mind that you will not find it on an exam; use the lecture outline as your guide; your exams are based mainly on your lecture outlines and lab activities; don’t forget to also view the PowerPoint versions of this lecture; they have more multimedia and some extra examples, but the content is essentially the same as your printable outline]
I. Anatomy vs. Physiology
A. Anatomy - the study of the structure and organization of the human body
B. Physiology - the study of body function
II. Topics of Anatomy
A. GROSS Anatomy - the study of body structures that can be seen with the naked eye
1. SYSTEMIC Anatomy - all of the organs with related functions are studied together as a system; for example, the skeletal system; we will approach this class from a “systemic” point of view, because it is easier to learn
2. REGIONAL Anatomy - all of the structures in a single body region are studied together; for example the head or arm; this is more advanced
B. Microscopic Anatomy - the study of structures that must be seen with a microscope; includes cells (CYTOLOGY) and tissues (HISTOLOGY)
C. Developmental Anatomy - includes structural changes that occur in the body throughout its life span, and the effects of aging; EMBRYOLOGY, the developmental changes that occur before birth, is a subdivision of developmental anatomy
D. Pathological Anatomy - deals with structural changes in the body caused by disease
E. Radiographic Anatomy - studies internal structures of the body as visualized by Xray images or other specialized scanning procedures
III. Topics of Physiology
A. Physiology is the study of the chemical and physical processes that allow the body to function, and maintain a relatively constant internal environment (in other words, maintain HOMEOSTASIS -- a topic that we will approach later in this outline)

(7th and 8th ed.)


B. Most students find studying the Physiology of the organ systems to be harder than learning the Anatomy; moreover, you must understand the anatomy before you can approach the physiology
IV. Levels of Structural Organization (fig. 1.1)
A. Levels 1, 2, and 3 (CHEMICAL, CELLULAR, and TISSUE) were covered in your BIO 156, or similar course
B. BIO 201 focuses on the ORGAN, ORGAN-SYSTEM, and ORGANISMAL levels, and assumes that you already have a good understanding of the previous levels
V. Organ Systems Overview (fig. 1.3); the following organ systems are listed in the order that you will learn them in your 201 and 202 courses:


(BIO 201)
Integumentary System

skin, hair, and nails

Skeletal System

bones and joints

Muscular System


Nervous System brain, spinal cord, and nerves
(BIO 202)
Cardiovascular System

heart, blood vessels

Lymphatic System

spleen, red bone marrow, lymph nodes, and tonsils

Endocrine System

hormone producing glands (e.g. thyroid gland, adrenal gland, pituitary gland, etc.)

Respiratory System

larynx, trachea, and lungs

Digestive System

esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver

Urinary System

kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra

(7th and 8th ed.)


Male Reproductive System

prostate gland, testes, ductus deferens (vas deferens)

Female Reproductive System

ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus

Briefly read about the major functions of each of the organ systems (use fig 1.3)