William the Conqueror-became King of England on Christmas day 1066; created the Domesday book
Tostig Godwinson- brother of Anglo Saxon King Harold Godwinson
Harold Hardrada- Viking king who attacked England in 1066 at the Battle of Stamford Bridge
Harold Godwinson- chosen to be king of England
Domesday Book- a census ordered by William the Conqueror to help him better tax the kingdom; consisted of the population of England in 1086-1087
Claremont- where the 1st crusade was called from Urban II
Hugh Capet- 987 was elected by nobles as KOF because he was seen as weak; made the throne hereditary; created Capetian dynasty that would rule for 300 years; built an efficient bureaucracy; gained backing of Middle Class
Philip II ( Augustus)- 1179 became KOF; was the first king to use the title “King Of France”; granted royal charters; imposed national tax; quadrupled royal land holdings; went on 3rd crusade; carried out Albigensian crusade at the behest of Pope Innocent III; stripped King John of Anjou and Normandy.
Louis IX of France- 1226 became KOF- was the only French king to be canonized; persecuted Jews, Muslims, and heretics; sent out officials to be his eyes and ears of the kingdom; expanded royal courts system; outlawed private wars; ended serfdom in all royal lands; participated in 2 crusades; died in 1270
Philip IV- grandson of Louis IX; attempted to tax the clergy; clashed with Pope Boniface VIII; Boniface forbade Philip form taxing clergy; 1305 Philip manipulated election of Pope and had a Frenchman elected; convinces pope to move ADMINISTRATIVE CENTER of the church from ROME to AVIGNON, which caused an extreme split in the Christian world that led to a crisis where more than one man claimed to be pope at one time; created estates general; never acquired the power of the purse; destroyed knights templar.
Lay Investiture- appointment of bishops by anyone who is not a member of the clergy.
Frederick Barbarossa- wanted to build an empire from the Baltic sea to the Adriatic sea; fought with popes over Italian control; popes in Lombard League defeated him.
Pope Gregory VII- 1054 was Pope; banned lay investiture; clashed with Henry IV and excommunicated him but was later forced to lift the excommunication
Frederick II- grandson of Barbarossa; very arrogant; tried but failed to control Italy; clashed with several popes; while he was caught up in Italian business, his German nobles grew more independent.
Lombard League- Alliance of city states in Italy who don't want to be ruled by emperors. Their ally was the Pope.
Canossa- castle in northern Italy where Henry IV begged Pope Gregory VII for forgiveness.
Alexius I Comnennas- sent letter to the pope Urban II asking for help fighting the Muslim Turks.
Le Puy, France- August 15th, 1096; pope gathers an army and leaves from Le Puy to travel to the Holy Land (Jerusalem); this is known as the official debarking to the Holy Lands.
Pope Urban II- Called out the first crusade in Claremont.
Jerusalem- capital of the Jewish state of Judea in ancient times and capital of the modern state of Israel; city sacred to Jews, Muslims, and Christians.
Crusade- holy war, literally means “taking up the cross”
Antioch-taken by crusaders because it had religious importance and it helped strategy
Nicaea- capital of the Seljuk Turks at 1st crusade
Fall of Jerusalem 1099- official end of the 1st crusade
Dorylaeum- where crusaders fought Kilij Arslan and won; first open battle in the 1st crusade.
Taking up the cross- benefits: if you died during the crusade you went straight through purgatory to heaven; you could keep any riches that you found; all sins were washed away; and all spiritual and physical debts were paid.
Hugh of France- leader of 1st crusade
Spanish Reconquista- few 100 years where Christian Spanish kings fought to remove Muslim leadership from the Iberian Peninsula. 1085-1492
Fall of Toledo 1085- begin of ReconquistaCastille- Kingdom united