study guide Essay

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Chapter 1

Which aspect of personal health do you have the most control over? Eating
What is important about the rates of cancer, infant mortality, and alcoholism among minorities in the US?
Know the distinct difference between each stage in the Transtheoretical model of behavior change.
Precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, termination.
What is self-efficacy as related to the Health Belief Model?
Self-efficacy refers to an individual's perception of his or her competence to successfully perform a behavior
What is health risk?
Age, gender, family history, income, education, location.
What is health literacy(健康认知力)?
Being an informed consumer, the ability to read, understands, act the health information.
What is genetic mutation? Alteration in the DNA sequence of the gene.
How is health defined? State of complete physical mental social and spiritual well-being
What are social determinants of health?
The social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age. These circumstances are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.

Chapter 13

What are Prions? What diseases do they cause?
Organisms believed to consist entirely of protein. Kuru, CJD, Bovine spongigorm encephalopathy(疯牛病 mad cow)
What illnesses are caused by Protozoa?
Encephalopathy, giardia, toxoplasmosis, amebiasis, malaria。
What physical barriers does the body have against infection?
Nasal passages: mucous membrane lining, hair, sneeze/ eyes: eyelids, eyelashes, tears,/ ears: hair, ear wax/ mouth: mucous membrane lining, saliva/ lungs: cough reflex cilia/ whole body skin/ stomach acid/ small intestine: bile enzymes/ large intestine: normal flora/ Genitals: mucous membrane lining, normal flora, vagina.
What contributes to antibiotic resistance?
Lessened the sensitivity to the effects of antibiotic.
Where is the problem greatest?
How is HIV transmitted?
Direct contact involving the exchange of bodily fluids, sharing of hypodermic needles, through infected blood products, perinatal transmission.
What is a phagocyte?后面有。。
How does food distribution contribute to infectious disease? Changes in food production and distribution can affect disease transmission. (Decrease the nutrient value of food, increase the risk that contaminated food will cause infectious disease, more than 250 organisms are associated with food-related illness, viruses, bacteria, prions parasites. )
What are the risk factors for Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)尿路发炎? Most common bacterial infection in women.
People with a higher risk of developing urinary tract infections include:
People with conditions that affect the bladder's nerve supply (including diabetes, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injuries)
Older adults
Pregnant women
People who have any kind of obstruction blocking the passage of urine, such as a tumor, kidney stone, or an enlarged prostate
Those who use a contraceptive diaphragm or spermicide for birth control
People who use a catheter, a tube placed into the bladder to drain urine from the bladder into a bag outside of the body
Men who engage in anal intercourse, who have HIV infection, or who have never been circumcised.##google的###

Know what each of the following are, and what they do (basic function).
Antibodies :An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large Y-shaped proteinproduced by B cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses.
Phagocytes Phagocytes are the cells that protect the body by ingesting (phagocytosing) harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead ordying cells.
Lymphocytes: white blood cells circulate in the bloodstream and lymphatic system
Antigen In immunology, an antigen is a substance that binds specifically to a respective antibody.

Chapter 7