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Nutrition and Disease Study Guide 2
Tuesday, September 9, 2014
9:11 AM
Cause of GERD - gastroesophageal reflux disease -Overweight
-Family History
-Hiatal Hernia
-Smoking
-Excessive Alcohol
-Large or high fat meals Release of Gastric Juice
- Hormone: Gastrin : Response to food in stomach Peristalsis - type of muscular contraction of the gastrointestinal tract Time it takes fat, protein, carbohydrate to leave stomach - 2 - 6 hours Chyme - mixture of gastric juice and partially digested food Causes of Ulcers
Bacteria (Helicobacter pylori)
Aleve, Advil, Motrin (not Tylenol)
Smoking
Excess Alcohol Major Functions of the liver
Makes Bile
Glucostat - regulates blood glucose (homeostasis)
Urea Formation
Synthesis & breakdown
Detoxification
Stores vitamins & iron
Destroys

Bile
Bile Acids - are made from cholesterol
Lipids
Bile pigments Pathology - Study of disease Lymph Nodes - filters white blood cells bacteria cancer Throat infection - lymph nodes near jaw sore swollen Small intestine 20 feet long
Major site: absorption nutrients Small Intestine
Inner Surface: fingerlike villi
Each villas - covered- microvilli
Absorptive surface
Inside villus
Capillaries - blood
Lateral - lymphatic system Glucose: how its used Glucose: liver cells: energy Glucose - liver - vein - heart Triglyceride + Fat Soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K) + protein turns into Chylomicron (lipoprotein) Colon: 5 feet long Colon functions
Absorb H20 ( dehydration) - blood
Convert chyme (liquid) -feces
Absorb vitamins/minerals - blood
Home: bacteria: cecum (pouch) + appendix Feces Undigested fiber , dead cells , water, bacteria Colonoscopy - cancer screening - gold standard Flexible tube - rectum - large intestine - camera Probiotics
Good Bacteria
Prevent Growth bad bacteria
Helps immune function Intestine 3-4 pounds microbes (microbiome) thing that live on you Gut bacteria can change with age, diet, disease Diverticulitis
Small Pouches in colon
(diverticula) - inflamed/painful
(diverticulitis)

Treatment
Soluble Fiber
H20

Importance of eating foods - mix and match foods from all groups Nutrients: spread around 5 food groups
Grains
Vegetables
Fruits
Milk
Meat and beans Examples of foods in the food groups Grains
Cereals
Breads
Crackers

Whole vs. Refined Grains Important difference: amount of Whole
100% whole grain wheat flour 12.2 grams Refined - Enriched, bleached, white flour 2.7 grams Whole grains: natural, rich in vitamins, minerals, fiber Refined Grains: broken apart (milled), processed (bleached, determinated) by food companies Whole Grains
Have more nutrients and fiber
Fewer Calories
Low in fat
Rich-antioxidants

Eat at least 3 ounces whole grain foods and at least 6 ounces of grain foods everyday Health benefits of fruits and vegetables
Lower risk of stroke, heart disease
Controls blood pressure naturally
Lowers chance of type 2 diabetes
Risk of cancer lowered Carotenoids (plant pigments) Ex. Beta carotene - vitamin A
Vision (night)
Growth
Reproduction
Healthy skin Foods that contain carotenoids
Carrots
Sweet potatoes
Tomatoes
Kale
Mangoes
Apricots Vitamin C: body can't make it need in diet
Important for: collagen synthesis (body support)
Protects DNA from damage
Helps fight bacterial infections
Helps repair wounds Foods with Vitamin C
Oranges
Kiwi Fruit
Broccoli
Peppers
Brussels sprouts
Potatoes

Folic Acid (B vitamin): can't be made by you
Helps form DNA (genes) for new cells
Folic acid deficiency: fatigue, type of anemia
Pregnancy - woman planning for or who are : protects growing fetus - nervous system defects Folic Acid Foods
Dry Beans
Oranges
Spinach
Foods with dark green leaves Potassium (mineral)- anti-salt
Need for nerve/muscle cells
Lowers blood pressure…