1. Testimonial evidence would be any witnessed accounts of an incident or crime.
2. Physical evidence refers to any material items that would be present on the crime scene or the victims. These items would be presented in a crime investigation to prove or disprove the facts of the issue.
3. Trace Evidence refers physical evidence that is found at a crime scene in small but measurable amounts and can be anything from strands of hair or skin cells to tool marks and physical (fracture) matches. Trace evidence can be used to identify a victim or suspect or determine how a crime was committed.
4. The value of trace (or contact) forensic evidence was first recognized by Edmund Locard in 1910. He was the director of the very first crime laboratory in existence, located in Lyon, France. The Locard’s Exchange Principle states that "with contact between two items, there will be an exchange.
5. Give an example for how each type of evidence could be used in the investigation of a crime scene.
Paint can be transferred from one place to another, often getting left behind at a crime scene.
Chemical spot test are performed once an explosive is safe, the chemical spot test will determine the makeup of the chemicals that were used in the explosive
Glass fragments will usually get in hair or on someone’s clothes, glass particles can be compared to particles at the crime scene.
Can determine where someone lives, works, where they have been, or even if they have pets.
Residue, components, and ammunition are all examined to find a match. Gunshot residue can be found on someone’s hands or face within the first 6 hours the person was exposed to it. Labs can compare it with target residue.
Saliva, sweat, or semen can all be found at a crime scene in coagulated or dried form. If vomit has been found it can be used to determine what the person had in their system. Cigarettes can have dried saliva on them, and semen containing sperm is very valuable for DNA.
Can determine when the crime took place based on how dry the blood is. The shape of the blood left behind can help detect what exactly happened. Blood can be used to eliminate suspects as well find the suspect.
Wound can tell investigators what happened to the person based on the shape and size by being compared to other weapons. A wound pattern is a technique that can help tell how a crime was committed and characteristics of the suspect.
Can be found at crime scene where a break in or robbery has occurred
Can be found at crime scenes where they can be photographed, lifted, or even cast with dental stone to help find a match. Can help