Study Guide Essay

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Study guide 1102 – Test 4, S13

I. Chapter 19 Fungi

A. Know the effects of Psilocybin (magic mushrooms), what are the possible benefits medically of the substance in the mushrooms?
Benefit sensory system, emotions, feelings of spirituality and well being
B. Know the 5 differences between fungi and plants
NOT photosynthetic, heterotrphic, cell wall made of chitin, different strategy for digestion, store carbohydrates as glycogen
C. Know their nutrition (what do they eat)
a. Saprophytes –decomposers of dead/ decaying material
b. Mutualistic relationships- for gathering food
a. Lichens- algae and fungi combined
b. Mycorrhizae- plants and fungi combined, fungi gets CHO’s, plants get minerals
D. Know the four basic parts of fungi anatomy and their function
Slender filaments called hyphae, mass of hyphae is called mycelium (may penetrate the food source), fruiting bodies (mushrooms) are reproductive mycelium that release spores, cell walls are made of chitin
E. Know the basic model of reproduction – asexual and sexual, only diploid phase is zygote, all other haploid
a. What is Dikaryotic? Not a stage in all fungi, cells retain separate nuclei from two parents
b. *Why does cytoplasmic fusion occur?
F. Know the 4 major Phyla of Fungi and their characteristics (know what we talked about for each Phyla)
a. Chytridiomycota- primitive fungi, powerful decomposers, digest cellulose, chitin and keratin, contributes to worldwide amphibian decline
b. Zygomycota- bread molds, no real “fruiting bodies”, form spores
c. Ascomycota- sac fungi, form structures called ascocarp, ex: yeast and truffles, important source of antibiotics and for food production, some are predatory
d. Basidiomycota- mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs, stinkhorns, shelf fungi; some deadly, edible or hallucinogenic
G. Knowhow the groups are exploited as a resource by humans, for ex. Ascomycetes were used to develop penicillin. Molds: Penicilllum for penicillin. Aspergillus for soy sauce and soft drinks. Yeasts: Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bread, wine, beer. Canadida albicans for infections. Be familiar with lichens.
a. What two organisms are they made up of? Symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism
b. Why are they considered an indicator species? Fungus acts as an anchor, algae supplies food c. What are the benefits to each organism in the mutualistic relationship? Resistant to environmental changes
II. Chapter 20 – Invertebrates.

A. Know the six general characteristics of animals: 1. Multicelled 2. Heterotrophs 3. Require O² for aerobic respiration 4. Reproduce primarily sexually 5. Motile 6. Embryonic development
A. Know the two major subkingdoms of animals- Parazoa (no true tissue), Eumetazoa (true tissue).
B. Know the different body plans: types of symmetry, gut, body cavities, segmented vs. non-segmented
i. How do you know if an organism shows radial or bilateral symmetry? Radial- body parts are arranged around a central axis. Bilateral- axis separated onto right and left sides, all complex organisms. ii. What is a complete gut? Why is it an advantage? Has opening at two ends, specialized areas to break iii. What is the importance of a coelom? Body cavity, key event in animal evolution, allows for specialized organs and transportation system iv. Know the diff. types of coeloms. Acoelomates- absent body cavity, Pseudocolomate- partial body cavity, Coelomate- full body cavity
1. What is a peritoneum? Tissue lining that encloses organs and keeps them in place
C. Know general information about sponges, and the structures we talked about: Spicules, Choanocytes, amoeba-like cells, epithelial cells
i. How do they feed?
D. General information about Cnidarians: two body plans, nematocysts
i. What tissues do they have? ii. Jellyfish lake, Box jellyfish
E. General information about Platyhelminthes (flatworms): symmetry, type of body cavity, cephalization