Study Guide Essay

Submitted By aviator123
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Pages: 4

Atkinson and Shiffrin: all enters sensory, what we focus on enters STM, rehearsal to keep in
STM, store in LTM, retrieve from LTM to STM to be remembered.
In this model there are 3 structural features: sensory memory, STM, and LTM control processes: rehearsal, strategies to make stimuli more memorable, and strategies of attention that help you focus on information
Sperling’s Experiment (iconic memory): subjects were shown a matrix of letters for 50 milliseconds and then they were asked to list all the letters the remembered. because less than half were remembered, sperling added a sound cue after flashing the matrix to indicated which row they were to recite. Sperling concluded that sensory memory registers all or most information but decays within a second. this is called iconic memory.
Brown & Peterson & Peterson (duration of STM): experiment requiring subjects to remember letters as they counted back in 3’s from a random given number. this lead to proactive interference which occurs when information that occurred previously interferes with learning new information. they claimed proactive interference shortened STM
Miller (STM capacity): he introduced chunking in which words or other small units can be grouped together into meaningful units like sentences or paragraphs. this increases the duration of out STM from 5-8 words to 20 words or more (monkey jumped wildly for the children at the city zoo)
Vogel & Luck (STM capacity): two arrays of colored squares flashed with a brief pause between. participants were to indicate if the color or the squares changed. performance was high with 1-3 squares but deteriorated with 4 or more. they concluded STM can hold about 4 items

Visual, Auditory, and Semantic encoding: auditory involves representing items in the STM based on their sound, visual is representing them visually, and semantic is representing them based on their meaning
Working Memory: three main components
-phonological loop: the part of working memory that holds and processes verbal and auditory information. phonological store has a limited capacity and holds information for a few seconds, the articulatory rehearsal process is responsible for rehearsal tat can keep items in the phonological store from decaying.
-visuospatial sketch pad: holds visual and spatial information. forming a picture in your mind etc
-central executive: where major work of working memory occurs. pulls information from LTM and coordinates the activity of the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad by focusing on certain parts of a task and switching focus from one part to another. decides how to divide attention Effect of damage to prefrontal cortex: PF cortex is important for holding information for brief amounts of time. the monkey whose PF cortex was removed was less likely to pick the well with food in it
Prefrontal neurons that hold information: in experiment with monkeys firing during delay between stimuli indicated neurons in PF cortex are important for working memory. monkey was able to remember where the original square flashed
Serial position curve (LTM vs STM): memory is better for words at beginning and end of list and weaker in the middle. first words are rehearsed into LTM and last words are recalled using

Coding and LTM: visual, auditory, and semantic code can still be used. recognizing someone’s face, the tone of their voice, or remembering the gist of something that happened in the past. semantic is predominant in LTM. meaning and logic are very important in LTM
Types of LTM: Explicit (conscious or declarative) and Implicit (unconscious or non-declarative)
-episodic (personal experiences)
-semantic (facts and figures)
-priming (change in response to stimulus caused by a previous presentation of the same or a similar stimulus)
-procedural memory (memory for doing things or skill)
-classical conditioning (pairing an initially neutral stimulus with…