1. Steps of the scientific method:
Observe – Recognize problem or unanswered question.
Hypothesize – develop hypothesis to explain problem
Experiment – design and perform experiment to test hypothesis
Collect and Analyze Data – analyze and interpret data to reach conclusions
Communicate – share new knowledge with other scientists.
2. Qualitative vs Quantitative Data
Quantitative – deals with numerical data; can be measured; length, height; weight; Quantitative---->Quantity
Qualitative – deals with descriptive data; can be observed but not measured; colors, textures, smells, tastes(pleasant, neutral, foul); Qualitative---->Quality
3. Data calculation (sum, sample size, mean)
Sample size refers to the number of data points(people, objects, etc.)
Alternate hypothesis: the brand of the tire and lifespan of a tire are related to one another.
Null hypothesis: the brand of the tire and lifespan of a tire are not related to one another.
1. Positive vs Negative Control
Negative control – no change is expected; purpose is to ensure reliable test results are collected.
Positive control – change is expected
2. Monomers of organic molecules
Carbohydrates – Monosaccharides(Sugars, Starches)
Lipids – Fatty Acids and Glycerol(Fats, Oils)
Proteins – Amino Acids(Enzymes, transport proteins)
Nucleic Acids – Nucleotides(DNA, RNA)
3. Inorganic vs organic molecules
Inorganic molecules – not produced by living organisms.
Organic molecules – produced by living organisms. Contains both carbon and hydrogen atoms.(starches, sugars, proteins, fats, oils, and DNA)
4. Chemical Indicator tests(benedict’s, iodine, biuret)
Benedict’s reagent – used to detect reducing sugars. Glucose, fructose, lactose, and maltose are examples of reducing sugars. Original color is blue but when it’s boiled with reducing sugars, it changes color to green, yellow, orange, or red, depending on the amount of sugar.
Iodine reagent – used to detect starch. Original color is amber. If starch is present, a purple or black color will develop.
Biuret reagent – used to detect proteins. Original color is blue. If the presence of peptides (short chains of amino acids) or proteins, Biuret changes color to pink or purple, depending on how much proteins are found.
1. Parts of a compound microscope
Arm, base, oculars, objective lenses, revolving nose piece, stage, stage clips, stage control knobs, course focus knob, fine focus knob, condenser, iris diaphragm.
2. Concepts of field of view, resolution, depth of field
The magnification power increases, the depth of field decreases in size. Since compound microscopes create a 2d image. One layer of a specimen is in sharp focus. The thickness of this layer-the depth of field-is dependent on the magnification power being used. The more magnification, the more resolution of an object.
3. Steps of making a wet mount
Place a small drop of water on the center of a slide. Place your hair strand into the water drop. Starting with a 45 degree angle, gently lower a cover slip onto the slide to avoid bubbles.
4. Differences between compound and dissecting microscope
a) Inversion of image: Compound microscopes invert and flip the image upside down. Dissecting microscopes don’t invert or flip.
b) 3-d vs 2-d images: 2d-images are created by compound microscopes. 3d images are created by dissecting microscopes.
c) Compound microscopes have more magnification that can be used to see individual cells. Objects viewed to a dissecting microscope are too large to be viewed through a compound microscope. Magnification of dissecting (5x-50x), compound (40x-1000x).
1. Identification of the different types of epithelial tissues.
Squamous- flat and thin like scales
Cuboidal – shaped like cubes
Columnar – shaped like columns
Transitional – can change shape to accommodate expansion or contraction
Simple – consists of a single cell layer
Stratified – consists of multiple cell layers
Pseudostratified – may appear