Essay Study Guide Ch 20-22

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Study guide ch.20-22
1. “Lame-duck “president Buchanan-
Define: believed that the Constitution did not authorize him to force southern states to stay in the Union.
Significance: He did nothing.
2.Why secessionists supported leaving the union-
Identify: -they were tired of abolitionist attacks -they believed that the North would not oppose their departure -The political balance seemed to be tipping against them -They were dismayed by the success of the Republican Party
3. Lincoln’s strategy for persuading Border States to stay in the union-
Identify: 1. In Maryland, Lincoln declared martial law (rule by the military) in order to seize the railroad into the state. He simply would not allow Maryland to secede and thus leave Washington D.C. as an island in the South.
2. Lincoln made it extremely clear that his goal was to re-unite the nation, not to end slavery. He knew that to fight to end slavery would likely scare the Border States away.
4.What caused the northerners to no longer allow southerners to leave the union-?
Identify: until the south attacked Fort Sumter.
5.Characteristics of the north-Lincoln-
Identify: The North had an enormous industrial advantage as well. The North had twice the density of railroads per square mile.
6.Election of 1864-
Define: Lincoln vs. McClellan
Significance: Lincoln wants to unite North and South, McClellan wants war to end if he's elected, citizens of North are sick of war so many vote for McClellan, Lincoln wins.
7.Northern group most dangerous to the union cause-
Identify: Northern Peace Democrats.
8.Union national banking system-
Define: It was the 1st national banking system since Andrew Jackson had killed the Bank of the U.S. in the 1830's.
Significance: 1. it established a standardized money system.
2. It could buy government bonds and issue paper money. In other words, it regulated the quantity of money in the economy/circulation. This is called "monetary policy" today.
3. It foreshadowed the modern Federal Reserve System of today.
9.Why the south believed the British would come to their aid-
Identify: Britain was dependent on southern cotton.
10.Union strategy for finding effective high-level commanders-
Identify: the union used trial and error.
11. Southern advantages in the civil war-
Identify: more talented military leaders.
12. Confederate government achievements-
Identify: confederacy had to fight the invading union army to a draw.
13. Initial union strategy to win the civil war-
Identify: A) a naval blockade of southern ports (B) Control of the Mississippi River
(C) The capture of Richmond (D) Keeping the Border States in the Union.
14. The emancipation proclamation-
Define: The Emancipation Proclamation gave the North's fight a moral foundation.
Significance: 1. it freed the slaves only in the seceded Southern states. But, it did not free the slaves in the Border States.
2. The South considered itself a separate nation from the North.
15. Greatest weakness of south during the civil war-
Identify: economy.
16. North’s greatest strength in the civil war- Identify: economy.
17. Lee’s reason for invading the northern territory in 1863-
Identify: in order to deliver a decisive blow that would strengthen the Northern peace movement.
18. Why Britain & the U.S. Nearly went to war during the civil war-
Define: The Americans shipping grain to Britain while Britain sent manufactured items and munitions.
Significance: Immigration continued into the U.S. British trade with the Confederacy was limited, with a little cotton going to Britain and some munitions slipped in by numerous small blockade runners.
19. The Alabama-
Define: The "Southern" ship was manned by Brits and never docked in the South.
Significance: It traveled the world and captured 60+ vessels. Needless to say, the North was not happy about the situation.
20. Northern women during the civil war-
Identify: The war forced women into public life.
21. What a