Study Guide Pysch 181 Essay

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Study Guide for Second Exam
Psychology 181 – Prof. Hope

This study guide lists key concepts from lecture and the textbook that you should know as you prepare for the exam. I recommend the following plan to prepare. A study group would likely be very helpful for steps 2 and 3.
1. Read the relevant textbook chapters if you have not already done so.
2. Look at the book and your notes and handouts from lecture to find out about each concept listed below.
3. Review the concepts until you are comfortable you have a good understanding of each one.
The material for this exam is more complex than the first exam. You may find the questions somewhat more difficult as they will be more likely to ask you to apply some of the ideas rather than just define the terms. Make sure you understand the ideas so you can recognize them in examples.

Learning
1. Classical conditioning procedure
UCS, CS, CR, UCR.
temporal arrangement of CS-UCS (delay, trace, etc.)
extinction
spontaneous recovery
stimulus generalization
2. Conditioned taste aversion
3. Little Albert
4. Operant conditioning procedure
positive and negative reinforcement
positive and negative punishment
shaping and chaining
primary and conditioned (secondary) reinforcers
schedules of reinforcement
describe pattern and rate of responding for each
and examples
discriminative stimulus
5. Classical conditioning of the immune system
6. Research on dogs and learned helplessness
7. Tolman’s rats and cognitive maps
8. Superstitious behavior
9. 4 conditions for modeling to occur, best models are…
10. Issues for parents who use punishment with children.

Memory
11. Memory and the serial position effect
12. Encoding, storage and retrieval
13. Sensory memory and sensory register
14. Working memory (define, features)
15. Types of long term memory and how they work
Declarative (episodic & semantic, retrospective & prospective) and Procedural
16. Limited capacity of working memory and chunking
17. Semantic memory networks (e.g., drawing on p. 222 that was shown in class)
18. Creation of false memories, factors that make created memories seems real (e.g., confidence)
19. Repression
20. Infantile amnesia
21. Mood congruent memory
22. Flashbulb memories – vividness and accuracy
23. Improving episodic memory according to lecture and the textbook
24. Constructionist theory of memory
25. Forgetting (what happens and Interference Theory & Retrieval Theory, retroactive and proactive interference)
26. Hippocampus, amygdala and memory
27. “Cells that fire together, wire together”

Cognition
28. Reasoning - definition
29. Sources of error in reasoning - mood states, confirmation bias, hindsight effect
30. 3 heuristics: Availability, Representativeness and Anchoring & Adjustment
31. How logical are our decisions
32. Cognitive processes in creativity.
33. Steps of problem solving discussed in lecture and creative problem solving ideas in textbook
34. Interference with problem solving – functional fixedness and mental set

Intelligence
35. g factor in intelligence
36. Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence
37. IQ, subscales for IQ and the Wechsler scales
38. Definition of intelligence
39. Evidence for role of environment versus genetics in intelligence
40. Cultural bias in IQ assessment
41. Group (gender/ethnicity) differences in IQ scores
42. Issues to consider for a parent who may have their child’s IQ tested
43. What IQ does and does not predict

Emotion
44. Cannon-Bard, James-Lange, and Schachter-Singer (2 factor) theories of emotion, LeDoux Dual Pathway processing of fear.
45. Six basic emotions, positive and negative affect
46. Emotion and facial expression, especially related to 6 basic emotions
47. Emotion and cognition influences on each other
48. Cultural differences in emotion, (cultural similarities in emotion especially as related to 6 basic