Study Guide Review 1 Essay

Submitted By Rachel-Grady
Words: 345
Pages: 2

Membrane: a bilipid layer (2 rows of fat molecules) that comprise the outer surface of a cell.
Fat molecules often create other internal structures as well.
Nucleus: a central location within a cell that houses the chromosomes and nucleolus.
Nucleolus: produces ribosomes that help decode DNA.
Chromosomes: a long strand of DNA housed in the nucleus.
Humans have 46 chromosomes.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): sections along the chromosomes called genes that code for particular proteins.
Humans have about 30,000 genes.
All humans share about 99.9% of their genetic material.
Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA): a temporary copy of a gene that will be used to duplicate it.
Non-coding RNA (ncRNA): RNA that does not copy for genes. ncRNA are a part of spliceosomes that chop up mRNA to the correct configuration.
Ribosomes: a protein molecule that transcribes the mRNA to a particular protein, which was coded by the original gene.
Cytoplasm: a viscous fluid that fills the interior of cells.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): Mitochondria product of ATP.
The breakdown of ATP produces substances, which maintain activity in the cell (energy).
Mitochondria: Single cell organisms living inside cells.
They have their own DNA and produce ATP for cellular energy.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Smooth ER: synthesizes lipids and segregates molecules involved in different processes.
Rough ER: contains ribosomes and helps prepare substances that are sent out of the cell (exocytosis).