I. ID List from which 15 will on the examination:
Russian Populism – aka Narodnichstvo - socialist movement where Russian middle and upper class intellectuals, idealizing peasant communes, “went to the people” and tried to educate and influence them to revolt, but failed.
People’s Will (Narodnaia Volia) – Violent Russian right wing terrorist organization, wanted to start a revolution my showing weakness of the monarchy, killed Alexander II.
Georgi Plekhanov - One of first Russians to call himself a “Marxist”, believe in “two stage revolution” First Russian Marxist organization - “Liberation of Labor.
Russian Social Democratic Workers Party – revolutionary socialist party formed in Minsk, uniting several revolutionary organizations including Polish Socialists, Jewish Bund, Proletarian Party, believed in revolution by the industrial working class.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov - Vladimir Lenin
Lev Davodovich Bronshtein – Leon Trotskiy
Aleksandr F. Kerenskii - From Simbirsk like Lenin, Moderate socialist (Trudovik) revolutionary, served as vice-chairman of the Petrograd Soviet and as Minister of Justice in the Provisional Government. Called General Kornilov from the front to restore order but gave revolutionaries arms to prevent military take over.
Mensheviks – name came after were the minority in a vote during 2nd congress of Russian Social Democratic party, yet both parties held relatively even parts of congress. Believed in a large party and more moderate. Plekhanov, Martov etc.
Bolsheviks – Lenin’s party that won majority vote in 2nd congress of RSDP, believed in a more exclusive party of professional revolutionaries. Later became Communist Party of Russia.
Party of Social Revolution (SRs) - based on original populist party, agrarian socialists, dominant voice Victor Chernov. Had an affiliated underground terrorist organization Called “Combat Organization” Gregorii Gershuni head by Gershuni, which assassinated political officials.
Kadets – from the initials for smaller liberal factions united into a progressive liberal Constitutional Democrat party lead by Pavel Miliukov. Believed in a constitutional monarchy, that emphasized freedoms and social rights. Later made up core of Provisional Gov’t.
Jan 9(22) 1905 “Bloody Sunday” – incident when Father Gapon organized his Assembly of Russian workers to march on the winter palace with a petition of demands for reform for the Czar who was currently away. Russian police fired into the crowd after firing warning shots.
Oct. 17(3) Manifesto – document issued by Nicholas II under the influence of Sergey Witte, as a reaction to the Revolution of 1905, granting liberties, reform, and participation in parliament.
Wilhelm II – Czar Nicholas’s cousin through Queen Victoria and later last German Kaiser, Ruler of Germany during World War I. Was in good relations with Nicholas, however miscommunications and pressure from Austria made them both declare war. Nicholas thought of him as “raving mad” after that
OTMA - acronym used by 4 daughter of Czar Nicholas the 2nd resulting from their first names Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia. Made up together because they were very close.
Tsarskoye Selo - “Tsar’s village”, a town located South of St. Petersburg which was a residence of the royal family, containing two palaces.
Livadia - Summer palace of the royal family in the Crimea region. Alexander III died there.
Alexander III – father to Nicholas II, Son of Alexander II, reversed many of his father’s reforms and under the influence of Pobedonostsev and his father’s assassination, took Russia back to strong autocracy, Orthodoxy, nationality.
Alix of Hesse-Darmstadt – Born in Germany, related to Queen Victoria, Wife of Nicholas II and later known as Alexandra Fedorovna Romanova
Gregori Efimovich Novykh – Grigoriy Rasputin
Rasputin – aka the “Mad Monk”, very controversial figure associated