Study Guide Text 2 Essay

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EARTH SCIENCE STUDY QUESTIONS – EXAM #2
Please include both the questions and your answers by placing your answer below each question. DO NOT just submit your answers! Upload this assignment in Canvas by Sunday, October 13th, 10:00 pm.
1. Describe the characteristics of pedocal soils. Thin A & B horizon and has K horizon at the base of B horizon pg41 2. List three types of foliated metamorphic rocks.
slate, schist, gneiss pg 36
3. Describe the two types of slides. Slump-Material moves along a curved surface
Rockslide- Material moves along a planar surface pg46 4. What are the two types of inclusions and how would you recognize each? Xenolith-inclusion in igneous rock Clasts-inclusion in sedimentary rock pg115 5. List the soil horizons and their characteristics (from surface downward). O horizon (surface) (leaves twigs stem tops) A horizon (top soil) Zone of leaching and eluviation. B Horizon (sub soil) Zone of leached material from A horizon. C horizon (bed rock or sediment) pg 40 6. List the three types of non-foliated metamorphic rocks. Quartz, marble, & anthracite coal pg 36 7. What factors can trigger mass wasting events? Addition of water, overstepping of slopes, removal of vegetation & ground vibrations pg 45 8. Define the Principle of Fossil Succession.Fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite order and any time period may be recognized by its fossils pg118
9. What are the two types of stress that may drive metamorphic changes? 
Directed stress(greater in one direction) Confining pressure (pressure is the same in all directions pg35
10. Describe the characteristics of laterite soils. Thick red soil, contains little humus, found beneath rain forest pg42
11. What are the four divisions of the geologic time scale (from largest to smallest)? Eons, Eras, Periods, Epochs pg119
12. What are the characteristics of gneiss? Distinctive light and dark bands, coarse grained, high grade metamorphism. Pg36
13. What are the characteristics of marble? What is the parent rock of marble? Primarily composed of calcite grains, parent rock: limestone, may form during regional or contact metamorphism pg36
14. What are the two sources of heat that cause metamorphic changes? Geothermal gradient & near by magna pg34
15. What is the difference between residual and transported soils? Residual soil is formed by chemical weathering of rocks in place and transported soil is chemical weathering of sediments pg39
16. What are the characteristics of index fossils? Wide spread geographically , lived for short interval, easily recognizable pg118
17. What is a lahar? Water mixed with fine volcanic material pg47
18. What is the parent rock of slate? Shale pg36
19. What is bauxite and what type of soils is it associated with? Bauxite is principle ore of aluminum & is associated with laterite soils pg42
20. What type of changes can occur…