How to Ace the Unit 4 Test:
1 Complete the study guide by defining the key words and answering the short answer questions with information you have learned in our course and class connect sessions.
2 Then study the information you have gathered for 3+ hours using one of the methods outlined in the document “Successful Study Methods for Biology Class” (located in Doc Sharing).
3 Be sure to attend the Unit 4 Review CC Session!
If you have questions: Watch CC Recordings on the topic! K-mail Mrs. Oram or sign up for a tutoring session!
Lifecycle of a fern
Lifecycle of a plant
1. Action Potential traveling through a neuron (4.01 slides 6, 7, 8)
2. Draw and label the reproductive structure of a flowering plant: ovule, stigma, pollen, eggs, sperm, haploid cells, diploid cells. (4.09 slides 7 & 8)
Short Answer Questions:
1. Describe the relationship between bones and muscles (4.05) Bones are made up of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and other minerals, as well as the protein collagen. Calcium is needed to make bones hard, which allows them to support your weight. Bones also store calcium and release some into the bloodstream when it's needed by other parts of the body. The amounts of certain vitamins and minerals that you eat, especially vitamin D and calcium, directly affect how much calcium is stored in the bones.
Bones don't work alone — they need help from the muscles and joints. Muscles pull on the joints, allowing us to move. They also help the body perform other functions so we can grow and remain strong, such as chewing food and then moving it through the digestive system.
The human body has more than 650 muscles, which make up half of a person's body weight. They are connected to bones by tough, cord-like tissues called tendons, which allow the muscles to pull on bones. If you wiggle your fingers, you can see the tendons on the back of your hand move as they do their work.
Humans have three different kinds of muscle:
Skeletal muscle is attached to bone, mostly in the legs, arms, abdomen, chest, neck, and face. Skeletal muscles are called striated because they are made up of fibers that have horizontal stripes when viewed under a microscope. These muscles hold the skeleton together, give the body shape, and help it with everyday movements (they are known as voluntary muscles because you can control their movement). They can contract (shorten or tighten) quickly and powerfully, but they tire easily and have to rest between workouts.
Smooth, or involuntary, muscle is also made of fibers, but this type of muscle looks smooth, not striated. Generally,