Study life Essay

Submitted By jeanettebutler
Words: 5039
Pages: 21

Evolution

Evolution is the process of change that has transformed life on Earth
DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid: a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix
Biology

The scientific study of life
Emergent properties

New properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.
Systems Biology

An approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on a study of the interactions among the system's parts.
Eukaryotic Cell

A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with eukaryotic cells (protists, plants, fungi, and animals) are called eukaryotes.
Prokaryotic Cell

A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with prokaryotic cells (bacteria and archaea) are called prokaryotes.
Gene

A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
Gene expression

The process by which information encoded in DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or, in some cases, RNAs that are not translated into proteins and instead function as RNAs.
Genome

The genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism's or virus's genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences.
Biosphere

The entire portion of Earth inhabited by life; the sum of all the planet's ecosystems.
Ecosystems

All the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact; one or more communities and the physical environment around them
Community

All the organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of different species living close enough together for potential interaction.
Population

A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed, producing fertile offspring.
Organism

a creature such as a plant, animal or a single-celled life form, or something that has interdependent parts and that is being compared to a living creature
Organs

A specialized center of body function composed of several different types of tissues.
Organ Systems

A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions.
Tissues

An integrated group of cells with a common structure, function, or both.
Organelles

Any of several membrane-enclosed structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells.
Cell

The part of a neuron that houses the nucleus and most other organelles.
Molecule

Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
Negative Feedback

A form of regulation in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows the process; in physiology, a primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial change.
Positive Feedback

A form of regulation in which an end product of a process speeds up that process; in physiology, a control mechanism in which a change in a variable triggers a response that reinforces or amplifies the change.

Evolution

Evolution is the process of change that has transformed life on Earth
DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid: a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix
Biology

The scientific study of life
Emergent properties

New properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.
Systems Biology

An approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on a study of the interactions among the system's parts.
Eukaryotic Cell

A type of cell with a…