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Impacts of Electric Vehicles – Summary report

Delft, April 2011

Compiled by:
Huib van Essen Bettina Kampman

Publication Data
Bibliographical data:
Huib van Essen, Bettina Kampman Impacts of Electric Vehicles – Summary report Delft, CE Delft, April 2011 Electric Vehicles / Production / Government / Industry / Investment / Research / Market / Economy / Analysis Publication number: 11.4058.26 CE-publications are available from Commissioned by: European Commission. Further information on this study can be obtained from the contact person Huib van Essen.

© copyright, CE Delft, Delft CE Delft Committed to the Environment CE Delft is an independent research and consultancy organisation specialised in developing structural and innovative solutions to environmental problems. CE Delft’s solutions are characterised in being politically feasible, technologically sound, economically prudent and socially equitable.


April 2011

4.058.1 – Impacts of Electric Vehicles – Summary report

1.1 1.2 1.3

Background Aim and scope of the study Approach and deliverables

5 5 6

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

Electric Vehicles on the market and in development
Introduction Specifications of electric cars Developments in other electric road vehicles Research and government programs on EVs

7 7 9 9

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Electric vehicle and battery technology
Introduction Battery technology and cost Other EV components Safety Issues

11 11 12 12

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

Future electricity sector
Introduction Related trends in the electricity sector Interaction between electricity production and EVs Charging technology

13 13 14 14

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

Economic analysis and business models
Introduction Total cost of ownership Existing government policies Business models

17 17 18 19

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

Impact analysis and policy recommendations
Introduction Impacts of market uptake of Electric Vehicles Main policy implications Recommendations for further study

21 22 24 25


April 2011

4.058.1 – Impacts of Electric Vehicles – Summary report


April 2011

4.058.1 – Impacts of Electric Vehicles – Summary report


Electric Vehicles (EVs) are a promising technology for drastically reducing the environmental burden of road transport. More than a decade ago and also more recently, they were advocated by various actors as an important element in reducing emissions of CO2, air pollutants and noise of particularly passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. At the same time, the electric passenger cars that are being developed are not yet competitive with conventional vehicle technology. Costs are still high and battery technology is still being developed, and there exist many uncertainties with respect to crucial issues such as:  Battery technology (energy capacity in relation to vehicle range, charging speed, durability, availability and environmental impacts of materials).  Well–to-wheel impacts on emissions.  Interaction with electricity generation.  Cost and business case of large scale introduction.


Aim and scope of the study
For EU policy makers, it is important to get a reliable and independent assessment of the state of the art of these issues in order to develop targeted and appropriate greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policy for transport. Therefore the Directorate-General for Climate Action (DG CLIMA) commissioned CE Delft, ICF and Ecologic to carry out a study on the potential impacts of large scale market penetration of EVs in the EU, with a focus on passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. This study includes an assessment of both the transport part (e.g. composition of vehicle fleet) and electricity production and provides estimates of the impacts on well-to-wheel GHG emissions, pollutant emissions, other environmental impacts, costs, etc. In this