When considering the moral issues surrounding the right to have a child, there are multiple problems to consider. Firstly, when using a surrogate, we have to evaluate whether it is morally correct to use another human being for nothing more than their ability to carry a child in their uterus. This would link to Categorical Imperative created by ethical thinker Immanuel Kant, as this woman is being used as a means to an end, which in this case is having a child. Also, a surrogate mother may wish to keep the baby she is carrying, instead of giving it to another family to raise as their own child, and this would cause unnecessary emotional stress to both parties. Similarly, if the family who have asked for this surrogate to have their baby changes their minds and no longer want the child, the surrogate mother is left pregnant with a baby she may not have wanted, and it is unfair to treat another human being in this way.
Artificial insemination is another method of having a child when it is not possible for a couple to conceive children naturally. It involves gametes which either come from the couple, making the child biologically theres, or a donor who may or may not be known to the parents. One issue arisen by this is who should pay for the collection of these gametes, as it could be funded privately or by a health service such as the NHS. If it was to be funded privately, this would be discriminative to couples with a lower finiancial status who are unable to conceive, as they would not be able to fund the thousands of pounds needed to have this procedure, so could not do it. If it was to be funded by the NHS or similar service, it would cost the tax payer a lot of money, unless there was some kind of screening process to determine which couples have a higher right to a child and therefore will have the treatment funded. If we were to apply the utilitarianism of John Stuart Mill, we would have to fund the treatment for all couples if we funded it for one, otherwise this would be unfair, but this wouldn't be financially viable for a country to do. Similarly, if we are having to pay for procedures that allow a couple to conceive, is this putting a price on the childs life? This violates the sanctity of life, as all life is viewed as sacred and holy, and therefore should not be reduced to a sum of money.
Another issue surrounding the right to a child is whether the use of IVF is a viable option for a couple who cannot conceive a child, as it has many downfalls. The success rate of IVF is only around 22%, so the chances of having a child in this way are relatively low. It could be argued, therefore, that the emotional issues linked to a failed round of IVF treatment cause more damage than not being able to conceive a child initially, as the parents have got there hopes incredibly high, only for it to fail. Jeremy Bentham's hedonic calculus