Study Notes: Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformations Essay

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Christian Heritage
Test #3 Notes

Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformations
(REL 1350 Weaver)

Biography
Early Life
Pre-Monastery
Domineering father
Law studies
Depression; overwhelmed by God’s wrath
Health issues, constipation from devil
Thunderstorm-“St. Anne, help me, I’ll become a _Monk_” ultimate devotion to God
Monastic Life: No peace about salvation still angry and scared of God
Ordered monastic lifestyle
Self-help (pilgrimage)
Treasury of merit
University of Wittenburg, 1512
Professor; exegetical lectures
Romans 1:17 “just shall live by _Faith_” (not works)
Three Pillars
Sola fides Only faith
Sola gratia Only grace; not works what you do
Sola Scriptura_ Only scripture
Sinner and Saint at the Same Time
How do you feel when you leave the Doctor’s office? Walk away still sick; still a sinner. Trust God to make you better
Reformer
95 Theses
Problem of Indulgences
Johann Tetzel: “when a coin in the coffer clings, a soul from purgatory springs” ‘paper only works with a contrite heart’ gma advertisement
Theses posted on church door (?), Wittenburg, Oct. 31, 1517* HALLOWEEN
National resentment-economic exploitation
Questions pope’s jurisdiction over purgatory
Induced complacency (sincere repentance?)
Leipsic Debate, 1519
Debate between Johann Eck, Andreas Karlstadt, Luther
Luther favorable to Hussite ideas (John Hus, who had been burned at stake for heresy)
Council of Constance erred in decision about Hus- to death; Luther now denied infallibility of papacy, councils
Exsurge Domine, 1520 Luther burns the bull
Papal condemnation of Luther
Treatises, 1520
To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
3 Roman _Walls_ to be knocked down
Priesthood of believers/no division between clergy and laity
Clergy (pope) not sole interpreter of _scripture_
Pope not only one who can call a council
Babylonian Captivity of Church
Two Sacraments: (infant) Baptism and Lord’s Supper
Lord’s Supper is consubstantiation; “with, in, around, above”
Real presence but not transubstantiation (inner substance is transformed by the words of the priest)
Diet of Worms, 1521 general assembly in Worms, Germany
“My conscience is captive to the _Word_ of God”
Excommunicated
After Worms
“Kidnapped” by Frederick and taken to Wartburg Castle-under ban
In hiding: Junker George
Translates New Testament into German
Peasants Revolt of 1525
Did not affirm social/economic equality of Peasants
Protestant Reform included Marriage of Clergy
Luther Married: Katherine von Bora, former nun
Relevance? So What?
Luther signals the beginning of a number of Protestant Reform Movements known as Protestantism; emphasized role of Scripture

Reformed Tradition: John Calvin
(REL 1350 Weaver)
John Calvin
(1509-1564)
Biography
Early Life
French native
Humanist Scholar
Protestant Conversion
“Sudden Conversion” (1532-1533?)
Nicolas Cop, Leader of Humanists and rector at U. of Paris, gives Inaugural Address that called for reform. Calvin, possible co-author, had to flee France with Cop.
1536, _Institutes_ of the Christian Religion
Originally a small handbook for Reform totaling six chapters; overnight best seller most famous out of reformation
Primary purpose was catechetical religious instruction
1559, 8th ed; 80 chapters A systematic theology- revolving around God
In Geneva (1536-1538)
Attempted to set up model Christian community
Sign creed; catechism in schools
Banished didn’t work, not everyone on same religious page
In Strassburg (1538-1541)
Pastor to French Refugees
Return to Geneva, 1541 invited back
Set up Holy Commonwealth_ Model Christian community
Picked up preaching where he left off – to continue the reform where he left off he teaches line by line- expository, finishing what he started
Strict Discipline
Consistory heard moral infractions every Thursday.
Penalties: fines to death; 1542-1546; 58 executed, 76 banished.
Opponents: Michael Servetus
1531, wrote On the…