Study2 Essay

Words: 2195
Pages: 9

History 229: History of Race, Science, and Medicine in the U.S.
Professor Helena M. Pycior

STUDY GUIDE FOR PRELIMINARY EXAM 2—October 14, 2014, 9:00-9:50 a.m., in LUB S151

The following are study questions for the examination. The examination will be a closed-book examination.

On the examination you will be required to respond to one of two essay questions. The essay questions on the examination will test essentially the same ideas as these study questions. Parts of study questions may be combined to form an essay appearing on the examination. More typically, a shortened or edited version of a study question will appear as an essay question on the examination.

In answering a given essay question, you are not
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For each of the two categories of “fudging and finagling” selected above, elaborate the major, specific argument(s) offered by Lewis and his collaborators against the specific category and its main example.
Lewis and his collaborators argue that Morton had no idea of the sex of the skulls. This was his main argument.
According to Gould, did Morton’s finagling constitute scientific or “conscious” fraud? How does Gould explain Morton’s finagling? How does this explanation relate to Gould’s major thesis about science and objectivity?
Gould argues that Morton was doing this subconsciously. He had no idea he was skewing things, his nature and his beliefs just affected the science. This explanation relates to Goulds major thesis because it shows that Morton was doing this without knowing. Nothing was intential or framed .

According to Lewis and his collaborators, did Morton try to be objective? According to Lewis and his collaborators, did Morton achieve objectivity? If not, specifically why not? If so, specifically why and how? Briefly (in a sentence or two) summarize the response of Lewis and his collaborators to Gould’s major thesis about science and objectivity. (State explicitly the general position of Lewis and his collaborators on scientific objectivity.)
According to Lewis, Morton did try to be objective. Lewis and his collaborators did believe that Morton achieved