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Submitted By bluepony
Words: 948
Pages: 4

ANTHROPOLOGY
TASK 1

One example of a non-Western culture which has been impacted by globalization is the Japanese hip-hop culture. Hip-hop music is a type of rhythmic music which people typically rap to. A Japanese DJ named Hiroshi Fujiwara visited New York City in the early 1980’s. During his stay he was introduced to hip-hop, took these American records back to Japan & began playing them (Wikipedia, 2014). Fujiwara along with the film Wild Style (a movie full of breakdancing, singing and graffiti paintings) are credited for starting the hip- hop culture in Japan (Wikipedia, 2014). Prior to hip-hop, rock music was popular for Japanese teens to dance and listen to. With this new type of hip-hop music break dancing, graffiti, and a new fashion of baggy clothing began to emerge with the Japanese adolescents. Today Tokyo resembles New York in an array of ways: there are stores with rap music playing in the background, spray painted artwork on sides of buildings and the youth of Tokyo break dance in the streets (Condry, 2003).

Nigeria oil extraction is another example of a non-Western culture who has been impacted by globalization. The oil companies Shell and BP discovered oil at the Niger River Delta. In 1958 after a contract was agreed upon between these oil companies & the Nigerian government, drilling commenced (Wikipedia, 2015). Prior to oil drilling Nigeria intensely depended on agricultural exports to other countries in order to supply their economy. As of 2000, oil and gas exports accounted for more than 98% of export earnings and about 83% of federal government revenue (Wikipedia, 2015). There are citizens living in land which became polluted by oil spills and gas flaring’s. Water which was clean prior to drilling is now polluted with oil products.

Money from big oil companies such as Shell and BP are responsible for the globalization of oil in Nigeria. Extraction of oil products caused great friction between the Nigerian government and the poverty stricken regions of Nigeria. The Nigerian government has complete domination over property rights and the government has the ability to seize any property for use by the oil companies no matter what the residents view may be. Residents of the Niger River Delta reside in severe poverty even in the face of abundant material wealth found in the waters by their homes.

The globalization of Nigeria oil extraction was achieved from a direct action. Oil companies were searching for new areas of oil to drill. The Western companies found oil in the Niger River Delta then approached the Government of Nigeria for extraction permission. The Nigeria government signed an agreement with the Western oil companies thereby directly introducing oil drilling to the Nigeria culture. Nigeria is one of the leading oil producers in Africa. Export is predominantly intended for U.S.A. and Great Britain (Wiese, Moar & Fleming, 2015)

Both the oil companies & the Nigeria government knowingly and intentionally entered into a written form of agreement. Furthermore the government knowingly took land which belonged to its citizens in order to profit from the oil industry. Oil extraction has led to a heavy network of extraction plants and pipelines on the mainland. These were constructed without consideration for customary land rights or the availability of forest and cultivated land, resulting in clashed with the local residents. Preparations and talks with engineers could have mapped out more conscious and respectful routes.

The Nigerian governments control over its citizens land property in addition to pollution issues cause this globalization example to be a negative one. Villagers continue to get their water right from the same rivers and streams that become catch basins for oil spills. Between 1989 and 2000, more than 536,000 barrels of oil were spilled; only 23,000 barrels were recovered (Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide, 2004).…