The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) also known as the Superfund act would be the outcome of many issues surrounding the proper disposal of waste nationally.
One of the most famous superfund sites is the love canal. Love Canal was originally a toxic dumpsite for a company called Hooker Chemical. The site consisted of 21,000 tons of waste (Flecher 311-333). In 1953 Hooker chemical sold this dumpsite to Niagara Falls school board for the price of one dollar explaining the sites history and conveying the health risks of building upon it (Flecher 311-333). Because a clear explanation of the sites history was given Hooker Company believed they would be released from of any of the future responsibility surrounding health risks concerning the property. Hooker proved to be mistaken. When Niagara Falls school board and housing authority constructed two schools and multiple units of low income apartments, health problems arose for the students and residents and Hooker Company would ultimately take the blame. Because of heavy rainfall the sites protective barrier began to deteriorate and toxic waste began to surface in the yards of the properties (Flecher 311-333). Over the next twenty years people would begin to experience hazardous effects from the sites leakage. Finally in 1976 reporters and activist began to shed light on the issue when samples of the waste were taken and linked back to serious health problems in the families of the community. Residents of the area experienced high numbers of miscarriages and multiple birth defects in their children, mental retardation, skin rashes burns, abdominal pains and stunted growth, all of these effects were traced back to the exposures to the toxic chemicals of the site
. News of the harmful effects on the resident of love canal would eventually become national news getting president Jimmy Carter involved. And leading to a trial finding Hooker Company negligent in the disposal of the waste. The final result would be the creation of CERCLA or Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act by the congress of the United States. This act made 1.6 billion dollars available to help clean up contaminated sites over a time span of five years when it was first passed in December 10, 1980. It has been altered since then and is now measured to make around 16.4 billion dollars. (Probst at al. 15-25) The funding for CERCLA comes from 12% from the federal government and 87% from taxes from chemical Industries. (Footing the Bill for Superfund Cleanups 25)
When a hazards waste site is determined, CERCLA permits two kinds of responses removal action and remedial action (Probst at al. 15-25). Removal actions are